Wendell Lim, PhD

Cellular Molecular Pharmacology
+1 415 502-8080



Senthilnath Lakshmanachetty, Milos Simic, Jeffrey Haegelin, Payal Watchmaker, Haoyu Long, Jason Deucker, Robert Zhu, Chanelle Sheperd, Wei Yu, Ben Ng, Yuan Wang, Olga Troyanskaya, Lia Cardarelli, Sachdev Sidhu, Wendell Lim, Hideho Okada

Degron-based bioPROTACs for controlling signaling in CAR T cells.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology

Kim MS, Bhargava HK, Shavey GE, Lim WA, El-Samad H, Ng AH

The General Characteristics and Design Taxonomy of Chatbots for COVID-19: A Systematic Review.

Journal of medical Internet research

Lim WA, Custodio R, Sunga M, Amoranto AJ, Sarmiento RF

Golden age of immunoengineering.

Immunological reviews

Wong WW, Lim WA

An immune-based tool platform for in vivo cell clearance.

Life science alliance

Zhang J, Tsukui T, Wu X, Brito A, Trumble JM, Caraballo JC, Allen GM, Zavala-Solorio J, Zhang C, Paw J, Lim WA, Geng J, Kutskova Y, Freund A, Kolumam G, Sheppard D, Cohen RL

Instructional materials that control cellular activity through synthetic Notch receptors.


Lee JC, Brien HJ, Walton BL, Eidman ZM, Toda S, Lim WA, Brunger JM

CAR-T Cell-Mediated B-Cell Depletion in Central Nervous System Autoimmunity.

Neurology(R) neuroimmunology & neuroinflammation

Gupta S, Simic M, Sagan SA, Shepherd C, Duecker J, Sobel RA, Dandekar R, Wu GF, Wu W, Pak JE, Hauser SL, Lim W, Wilson MR, Zamvil SS

Harnessing synthetic biology to engineer organoids and tissues.

Cell stem cell

Trentesaux C, Yamada T, Klein OD, Lim WA

Synthetic cytokine circuits that drive T cells into immune-excluded tumors.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Allen GM, Frankel NW, Reddy NR, Bhargava HK, Yoshida MA, Stark SR, Purl M, Lee J, Yee JL, Yu W, Li AW, Garcia KC, El-Samad H, Roybal KT, Spitzer MH, Lim WA

Programming Multicellular Assembly with Synthetic Cell Adhesion Molecules.


Stevens AJ, Harris AR, Gerdts J, Kim KH, Trentesaux C, Ramirez JT, McKeithan WL, Fattahi F, Klein OD, Fletcher DA, Lim WA

Decoding CAR T cell phenotype using combinatorial signaling motif libraries and machine learning.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Daniels KG, Wang S, Simic MS, Bhargava HK, Capponi S, Tonai Y, Yu W, Bianco S, Lim WA

CAR-T Cell-Mediated B Cell Depletion in Central Nervous System Autoimmunity.


Sasha Gupta, Milos Simic, Sharon Sagan, Jason Duecker, Chanelle Shepherd, Raymond Sobel, Stephen Hauser, Wendell Lim, Michael Wilson, Scott Zamvil



Payal Watchmaker, Milos Simic, David Diebold, Psalm Pineo-Cavanaugh, Jason Deucker, Wei Yu, Wendell Lim, Hideho Okada

Deep-learning-based analysis of combinatorial synthetic T-cell receptor libraries.

Biophysical journal

Shangying Wang, Kyle G. Daniels, Sara Capponi, Wendell Lim, Simone Bianco

T cells selectively filter oscillatory signals on the minutes timescale.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

O'Donoghue GP, Bugaj LJ, Anderson W, Daniels KG, Rawlings DJ, Lim WA

T cell circuits that sense antigen density with an ultrasensitive threshold.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Hernandez-Lopez RA, Yu W, Cabral KA, Creasey OA, Lopez Pazmino MDP, Tonai Y, De Guzman A, Mäkelä A, Saksela K, Gartner ZJ, Lim WA

Repurposing CRISPR as an RNA-guided platform for sequence-specific control of gene expression.


Qi LS, Larson MH, Gilbert LA, Doudna JA, Weissman JS, Arkin AP, Lim WA

DNA scaffolds enable efficient and tunable functionalization of biomaterials for immune cell modulation.

Nature nanotechnology

Huang X, Williams JZ, Chang R, Li Z, Burnett CE, Hernandez-Lopez R, Setiady I, Gai E, Patterson DM, Yu W, Roybal KT, Lim WA, Desai TA

Engineering cytokines and cytokine circuits.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Li AW, Lim WA

Precise T cell recognition programs designed by transcriptionally linking multiple receptors.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Williams JZ, Allen GM, Shah D, Sterin IS, Kim KH, Garcia VP, Shavey GE, Yu W, Puig-Saus C, Tsoi J, Ribas A, Roybal KT, Lim WA



Payal Watchmaker, Joseph Choe, Milos Simic, Ryan Gilbert, Aileen li, Nira Krasnow, Diego Carrera, Wei Yu, Kira Downey, Anna Celli, Juhyun Cho, Jessica Briones, Ruth Dannenfelser, Lia Cardarelli, Sachdev Sidhu, Kole Roybal, Wendell Lim, Hideho Okada

Engineering synthetic morphogen systems that can program multicellular patterning.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Toda S, McKeithan WL, Hakkinen TJ, Lopez P, Klein OD, Lim WA

What is the Optimal Design-Build-Test Cycle for Clinically Relevant Synthetic CAR T Cell Therapies?

Cell systems

Chen YY, Lim W, Levings M, Blazar B, Krenciute G, Wong W, Lehner M

Discriminatory Power of Combinatorial Antigen Recognition in Cancer T Cell Therapies.

Cell systems

Dannenfelser R, Allen GM, VanderSluis B, Koegel AK, Levinson S, Stark SR, Yao V, Tadych A, Troyanskaya OG, Lim WA

DNA-scaffolded biomaterials enable modular and tunable presentation of proteins to control immune cell therapies.

The Journal of Immunology

Xiao Huang, Jasper Z. Williams, Ryan Chang, Zhongbo Li, Eric Gai, David M. Patterson, Yu Wei, Wendell A. Lim, Tejal Desai

Engineering T Cells to Treat Cancer: The Convergence of Immuno-Oncology and Synthetic Biology.

Annual Review of Cancer Biology

Joseph H. Choe, Jasper Z. Williams, Wendell A. Lim



Payal Watchmaker, Joseph Choe, Diego Carrera, Ryan Gilbert, Wei Yu, Kira Downey, Kole Roybal, Wendell Lim, Hideho Okada

Simple Rules Determine Distinct Patterns of Branching Morphogenesis.

Cell systems

Yu W, Marshall WF, Metzger RJ, Brakeman PR, Morsut L, Lim W, Mostov KE

Engineering cell-cell communication networks: programming multicellular behaviors.

Current opinion in chemical biology

Toda S, Frankel NW, Lim WA

Abstract A031: Engineering antigen density sensors for T-cell immunotherapy.

Cancer Immunology Research

Rogelio A. Hernandez-Lopez, Wendell A. Lim, Wei Yu

Cancer mutations and targeted drugs can disrupt dynamic signal encoding by the Ras-Erk pathway.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Bugaj LJ, Sabnis AJ, Mitchell A, Garbarino JE, Toettcher JE, Bivona TG, Lim WA

Programming self-organizing multicellular structures with synthetic cell-cell signaling.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Toda S, Blauch LR, Tang SKY, Morsut L, Lim WA

Design of Tunable Oscillatory Dynamics in a Synthetic NF-?B Signaling Circuit.

Cell systems

Zhang ZB, Wang QY, Ke YX, Liu SY, Ju JQ, Lim WA, Tang C, Wei P

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated PD-1 disruption enhances anti-tumor efficacy of human chimeric antigen receptor T cells.

Scientific reports

Rupp LJ, Schumann K, Roybal KT, Gate RE, Ye CJ, Lim WA, Marson A

Interrogating cellular perception and decision making with optogenetic tools.

The Journal of cell biology

Bugaj LJ, O'Donoghue GP, Lim WA

Engineering Therapeutic T Cells: From Synthetic Biology to Clinical Trials.

Annual review of pathology

Esensten JH, Bluestone JA, Lim WA

Engineering dynamical control of cell fate switching using synthetic phospho-regulons.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Gordley RM, Williams RE, Bashor CJ, Toettcher JE, Yan S, Lim WA

Complex transcriptional modulation with orthogonal and inducible dCas9 regulators.

Nature methods

Gao Y, Xiong X, Wong S, Charles EJ, Lim WA, Qi LS

Engineering T Cells with Customized Therapeutic Response Programs Using Synthetic Notch Receptors.


Roybal KT, Williams JZ, Morsut L, Rupp LJ, Kolinko I, Choe JH, Walker WJ, McNally KA, Lim WA

Cellular perception and misperception: Internal models for decision-making shaped by evolutionary experience.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology

Mitchell A, Lim W

Modular engineering of cellular signaling proteins and networks.

Current opinion in structural biology

Gordley RM, Bugaj LJ, Lim WA

CRISPR/Cas9 for Human Genome Engineering and Disease Research.

Annual review of genomics and human genetics

Xiong X, Chen M, Lim WA, Zhao D, Qi LS

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated PD-1 disruption enhances anti-tumor efficacy of human chimeric antigen receptor T cells.

The Journal of Immunology

Levi Rupp, Kathrin Schumann, Kole T Roybal, Alexander Marson, Wendell A Lim

Nucleosome breathing and remodeling constrain CRISPR-Cas9 function.


Isaac RS, Jiang F, Doudna JA, Lim WA, Narlikar GJ, Almeida R

Engineering Customized Cell Sensing and Response Behaviors Using Synthetic Notch Receptors.


Morsut L, Roybal KT, Xiong X, Gordley RM, Coyle SM, Thomson M, Lim WA

Precision Tumor Recognition by T Cells With Combinatorial Antigen-Sensing Circuits.


Roybal KT, Rupp LJ, Morsut L, Walker WJ, McNally KA, Park JS, Lim WA

Expanding the CRISPR imaging toolset with Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 for simultaneous imaging of multiple genomic loci.

Nucleic acids research

Chen B, Hu J, Almeida R, Liu H, Balakrishnan S, Covill-Cooke C, Lim WA, Huang B

Beyond editing: repurposing CRISPR-Cas9 for precision genome regulation and interrogation.

Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology

Dominguez AA, Lim WA, Qi LS

Remote control of therapeutic T cells through a small molecule-gated chimeric receptor.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Wu CY, Roybal KT, Puchner EM, Onuffer J, Lim WA

Synthetic biology approaches to engineer T cells.

Current opinion in immunology

Wu CY, Rupp LJ, Roybal KT, Lim WA

Differential genetic interactions of yeast stress response MAPK pathways.

Molecular systems biology

Martin H, Shales M, Fernandez-Piñar P, Wei P, Molina M, Fiedler D, Shokat KM, Beltrao P, Lim W, Krogan NJ

Engineering complex synthetic transcriptional programs with CRISPR RNA scaffolds.


Zalatan JG, Lee ME, Almeida R, Gilbert LA, Whitehead EH, La Russa M, Tsai JC, Weissman JS, Dueber JE, Qi LS, Lim WA

Specific gene repression by CRISPRi system transferred through bacterial conjugation.

ACS synthetic biology

Ji W, Lee D, Wong E, Dadlani P, Dinh D, Huang V, Kearns K, Teng S, Chen S, Haliburton J, Heimberg G, Heineike B, Ramasubramanian A, Stevens T, Helmke KJ, Zepeda V, Qi LS, Lim WA

Synthetic control of mammalian-cell motility by engineering chemotaxis to an orthogonal bioinert chemical signal.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Park JS, Rhau B, Hermann A, McNally KA, Zhou C, Gong D, Weiner OD, Conklin BR, Onuffer J, Lim WA

Genetic sensor for strong methylating compounds.

ACS synthetic biology

Moser F, Horwitz A, Chen J, Lim W, Voigt CA

CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) for sequence-specific control of gene expression.

Nature protocols

Larson MH, Gilbert LA, Wang X, Lim WA, Weissman JS, Qi LS

Actin dynamics rapidly reset chemoattractant receptor sensitivity following adaptation in neutrophils.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences

Dandekar SN, Park JS, Peng GE, Onuffer JJ, Lim WA, Weiner OD

Counting molecules in single organelles with superresolution microscopy allows tracking of the endosome maturation trajectory.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Puchner EM, Walter JM, Kasper R, Huang B, Lim WA

CRISPR-mediated modular RNA-guided regulation of transcription in eukaryotes.


Gilbert LA, Larson MH, Morsut L, Liu Z, Brar GA, Torres SE, Stern-Ginossar N, Brandman O, Whitehead EH, Doudna JA, Lim WA, Weissman JS, Qi LS

Signalling change: signal transduction through the decades.

Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology

Hynes NE, Ingham PW, Lim WA, Marshall CJ, Massagué J, Pawson T

Cell-based therapeutics: the next pillar of medicine.

Science translational medicine

Fischbach MA, Bluestone JA, Lim WA

Bridging cross-cultural gaps in scientific exchange through innovative team challenge workshops.

Quantitative biology (Beijing, China)

Lee CM, Gong S, Tang C, Lim WA

Repurposing CRISPR as an RNA-guided platform for sequence-specific control of gene expression.


Qi LS, Larson MH, Gilbert LA, Doudna JA, Weissman JS, Arkin AP, Lim WA

Cell biology 2.0.

Trends in cell biology

Lim WA, Alvania R, Marshall WF

The first World Cell Race.

Current biology : CB

Maiuri P, Terriac E, Paul-Gilloteaux P, Vignaud T, McNally K, Onuffer J, Thorn K, Nguyen PA, Georgoulia N, Soong D, Jayo A, Beil N, Beneke J, Lim JC, Sim CP, Chu YS

Bacterial virulence proteins as tools to rewire kinase pathways in yeast and immune cells.


Wei P, Wong WW, Park JS, Corcoran EE, Peisajovich SG, Onuffer JJ, Weiss A, Lim WA

Conformational control of the Ste5 scaffold protein insulates against MAP kinase misactivation.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Zalatan JG, Coyle SM, Rajan S, Sidhu SS, Lim WA

Systematic functional prioritization of protein posttranslational modifications.


Beltrao P, Albanèse V, Kenner LR, Swaney DL, Burlingame A, Villén J, Lim WA, Fraser JS, Frydman J, Krogan NJ

Control of protein signaling using a computationally designed GTPase/GEF orthogonal pair.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Kapp GT, Liu S, Stein A, Wong DT, Reményi A, Yeh BJ, Fraser JS, Taunton J, Lim WA, Kortemme T

Light-based feedback for controlling intracellular signaling dynamics.

Nature methods

Toettcher JE, Gong D, Lim WA, Weiner OD

Recruitment interactions can override catalytic interactions in determining the functional identity of a protein kinase.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Won AP, Garbarino JE, Lim WA

Scaffold proteins: hubs for controlling the flow of cellular information.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Good MC, Zalatan JG, Lim WA

Regulation of NR4A nuclear receptor expression by oncogenic BRAF in melanoma cells.

Pigment cell & melanoma research

Smith AG, Lim W, Pearen M, Muscat GE, Sturm RA

Light control of plasma membrane recruitment using the Phy-PIF system.

Methods in enzymology

Toettcher JE, Gong D, Lim WA, Weiner OD

Build life to understand it.


Elowitz M, Lim WA

Designing customized cell signalling circuits.

Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology

Lim WA

Rapid diversification of cell signaling phenotypes by modular domain recombination.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Peisajovich SG, Garbarino JE, Wei P, Lim WA

Defining network topologies that can achieve biochemical adaptation.

The FASEB Journal

Chao Tang, Wenzhe Ma, Ala Trusina, Hana El-Samad, Wendell Lim

The Design Logic of Cell Signaling Systems.

The FASEB Journal

Wendell A Lim

Deciphering protein kinase specificity through large-scale analysis of yeast phosphorylation site motifs.

Science signaling

Mok J, Kim PM, Lam HY, Piccirillo S, Zhou X, Jeschke GR, Sheridan DL, Parker SA, Desai V, Jwa M, Cameroni E, Niu H, Good M, Remenyi A, Ma JL, Sheu YJ, Sassi HE, Sopko R, Chan CS, De Virgilio C, Hollingsworth NM, Lim WA, Stern DF, Stillman B, Andrews BJ, Gerstein MB, Snyder M, Turk BE

Rewiring cells: synthetic biology as a tool to interrogate the organizational principles of living systems.

Annual review of biophysics

Bashor CJ, Horwitz AA, Peisajovich SG, Lim WA

Reengineering the signaling properties of a Src family kinase.


Yadav SS, Yeh BJ, Craddock BP, Lim WA, Miller WT

Defining network topologies that can achieve biochemical adaptation.


Ma W, Trusina A, El-Samad H, Lim WA, Tang C

Scaffolds: interaction platforms for cellular signalling circuits.

Trends in cell biology

Zeke A, Lukács M, Lim WA, Reményi A

Positive selection of tyrosine loss in metazoan evolution.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Tan CS, Pasculescu A, Lim WA, Pawson T, Bader GD, Linding R

Evolution of phosphoregulation: comparison of phosphorylation patterns across yeast species.

PLoS biology

Beltrao P, Trinidad JC, Fiedler D, Roguev A, Lim WA, Shokat KM, Burlingame AL, Krogan NJ

Frederic M Richards 1925-2009.

Nature structural & molecular biology

Lim WA

The pathogen protein EspF(U) hijacks actin polymerization using mimicry and multivalency.


Sallee NA, Rivera GM, Dueber JE, Vasilescu D, Mullins RD, Mayer BJ, Lim WA

Evolution of the phospho-tyrosine signaling machinery in premetazoan lineages.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Pincus D, Letunic I, Bork P, Lim WA

Using engineered scaffold interactions to reshape MAP kinase pathway signaling dynamics.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Bashor CJ, Helman NC, Yan S, Lim WA

The genome of the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis and the origin of metazoans.


King N, Westbrook MJ, Young SL, Kuo A, Abedin M, Chapman J, Fairclough S, Hellsten U, Isogai Y, Letunic I, Marr M, Pincus D, Putnam N, Rokas A, Wright KJ, Zuzow R, Dirks W, Good M, Goodstein D, Lemons D, Li W, Lyons JB, Morris A, Nichols S, Richter DJ, Salamov A, Sequencing JG, Bork P, Lim WA, Manning G, Miller WT, McGinnis W, Shapiro H, Tjian R, Grigoriev IV, Rokhsar D

A microfluidic system for dynamic yeast cell imaging.


Lee PJ, Helman NC, Lim WA, Hung PJ

Engineering modular protein interaction switches by sequence overlap.

Journal of the American Chemical Society

Sallee NA, Yeh BJ, Lim WA

Multiple WASP-interacting protein recognition motifs are required for a functional interaction with N-WASP.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Peterson FC, Deng Q, Zettl M, Prehoda KE, Lim WA, Way M, Volkman BF

Beta strand peptidomimetics as potent PDZ domain ligands.

Chemistry & biology

Hammond MC, Harris BZ, Lim WA, Bartlett PA

Docking interactions in protein kinase and phosphatase networks.

Current opinion in structural biology

Reményi A, Good MC, Lim WA

The Modular Logic of Cell Signaling Systems.

The FASEB Journal

Wendell A Lim

The Ste5 scaffold allosterically modulates signaling output of the yeast mating pathway.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Bhattacharyya RP, Reményi A, Good MC, Bashor CJ, Falick AM, Lim WA

A polybasic motif allows N-WASP to act as a sensor of PIP(2) density.

Molecular cell

Papayannopoulos V, Co C, Prehoda KE, Snapper S, Taunton J, Lim WA

Rewiring cell signaling: the logic and plasticity of eukaryotic protein circuitry.

Current opinion in structural biology

Dueber JE, Yeh BJ, Bhattacharyya RP, Lim WA

Reprogramming control of an allosteric signaling switch through modular recombination.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Dueber JE, Yeh BJ, Chak K, Lim WA

Activation of Ras by Grb2-SOS: Demonstrating an Assembly Role of SH3 Domains.

Science signaling

Ali Zarrinpar, Roby P. Bhattacharyya, Wendell A. Lim, Nancy R. Gough

Complex inheritance of familial hypercholanemia with associated mutations in TJP2 and BAAT.

Nature genetics

Carlton VE, Harris BZ, Puffenberger EG, Batta AK, Knisely AS, Robinson DL, Strauss KA, Shneider BL, Lim WA, Salen G, Morton DH, Bull LN

The structure and function of proline recognition domains.

Science's STKE : signal transduction knowledge environment

Zarrinpar A, Bhattacharyya RP, Lim WA

Role of electrostatic interactions in PDZ domain ligand recognition.


Harris BZ, Lau FW, Fujii N, Guy RK, Lim WA

Rewiring MAP kinase pathways using alternative scaffold assembly mechanisms.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Park SH, Zarrinpar A, Lim WA

From folding towards function.

Current opinion in structural biology

Baker D, Lim WA

Mechanism and role of PDZ domains in signaling complex assembly.

Journal of cell science

Harris BZ, Lim WA

The double life of PX domains.

Nature structural biology

Prehoda KE, Lim WA

An analysis of the interactions between the Sem-5 SH3 domain and its ligands using molecular dynamics, free energy calculations, and sequence analysis.

Journal of the American Chemical Society

Wang W, Lim WA, Jakalian A, Wang J, Wang J, Luo R, Bayly CI, Kollman PA

Integration of multiple signals through cooperative regulation of the N-WASP-Arp2/3 complex.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Prehoda KE, Scott JA, Mullins RD, Lim WA

Converging on proline: the mechanism of WW domain peptide recognition.

Nature structural biology

Zarrinpar A, Lim WA

Improving SH3 domain ligand selectivity using a non-natural scaffold.

Chemistry & biology

Nguyen JT, Porter M, Amoui M, Miller WT, Zuckermann RN, Lim WA

PSD-95 assembles a ternary complex with the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor and a bivalent neuronal NO synthase PDZ domain.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Christopherson KS, Hillier BJ, Lim WA, Bredt DS

Unexpected modes of PDZ domain scaffolding revealed by structure of nNOS-syntrophin complex.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Hillier BJ, Christopherson KS, Prehoda KE, Bredt DS, Lim WA

Exploiting the basis of proline recognition by SH3 and WW domains: design of N-substituted inhibitors.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Nguyen JT, Turck CW, Cohen FE, Zuckermann RN, Lim WA

How Src exercises self-restraint.

Nature structural biology

Nguyen JT, Lim WA

Reading between the lines: SH3 recognition of an intact protein.

Structure (London, England : 1993)

Lim WA

Stability and peptide binding affinity of an SH3 domain from the Caenorhabditis elegans signaling protein Sem-5.

Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society

Lim WA, Fox RO, Richards FM

The crystal structure of a mutant protein with altered but improved hydrophobic core packing.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Lim WA, Hodel A, Sauer RT, Richards FM

An analysis of packing in the protein folding problem.

Quarterly reviews of biophysics

Richards FM, Lim WA

Analysis of DNA-protein interactions by affinity coelectrophoresis.

Methods in enzymology

Lim WA, Sauer RT, Lander AD

Random mutagenesis of protein sequences using oligonucleotide cassettes.

Methods in enzymology

Reidhaar-Olson JF, Bowie JU, Breyer RM, Hu JC, Knight KL, Lim WA, Mossing MC, Parsell DA, Shoemaker KR, Sauer RT

Deciphering the message in protein sequences: tolerance to amino acid substitutions.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Bowie JU, Reidhaar-Olson JF, Lim WA, Sauer RT