Charles Craik, PhD

Professor
Pharmaceutical Chemistry
+1 415 476-8146

My research focuses on structure-function analysis of proteases and their inhibitors. In my lab we use a combination of genetic, biochemical, and biophysical methods, with particular emphasis on identifying the roles and regulating the activity of proteases associated with infectious diseases, cancer, and development.

Proteases are directly or indirectly involved in virtually every biological function or dysfunction. The omnipresence of proteases and their natural inhibitors has placed them among the most studied proteins in biochemistry. The research efforts of the lab focus primarily on the structure-function analysis of proteases and their inhibitors using a combination of genetic, biochemical and biophysical methods. Chemical biological approaches are used or are being developed to study the substrate specificity, catalytic mechanism and biological role of proteases and their macromolecular inhibitors. The genes for serine (trypsin, serine collagenase, easter, prostate specific antigen, T-cell specific granzymes, MT-SP1 and 2, KSHV protease), cysteine (cruzain and falcipain) and aspartyl (HIV1 & HIV2 & SIV) proteases and macromolecular inhibitors such as ecotin and single chain antibodies are manipulated and expressed in heterologous expression systems. Targeted, region specific or random substitutions are introduced recombinantly to create variants that provide insight into the structure and activity of the target protein. A particular emphasis of our work is on identifying the roles and regulating the activity of proteases associated with infectious diseases, cancer and development. These studies are providing a better understanding of both the chemical make-up and the biological importance of these critical proteins. This in turn is leading to the development of strategies for regulating proteolytic activity as a means of therapeutic intervention. Further study of these proteins holds promise for better understanding, rapid detection and eventual control of infectious diseases and cancer.

Publications: 

Discovery and characterization of a thioesterase-specific monoclonal antibody that recognizes the 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase.

Biochemistry

Li X, Sevillano N, La Greca F, Hsu J, Mathews II, Matsui T, Craik CS, Khosla C

A preclinical assessment of 89Zr-atezolizumab identifies a requirement for carrier added formulations not observed with 89Zr-C4.

Bioconjugate chemistry

Moroz A, Lee CY, Wang YH, Hsiao JC, Sevillano N, Truillet C, Craik CS, Fong L, Wang CI, Evans MJ

Structural determinants of specificity and regulation of activity in the allosteric loop network of human KLK8/neuropsin.

Scientific reports

Debela M, Magdolen V, Skala W, Elsässer B, Schneider EL, Craik CS, Biniossek ML, Schilling O, Bode W, Brandstetter H, Goettig P

Structure-Function Analysis of the Extended Conformation of a Polyketide Synthase Module.

Journal of the American Chemical Society

Li X, Sevillano N, La Greca F, Deis L, Liu YC, Deller MC, Mathews II, Matsui T, Cane DE, Craik CS, Khosla C

SmSP2: A serine protease secreted by the blood fluke pathogen Schistosoma mansoni with anti-hemostatic properties.

PLoS neglected tropical diseases

Leontovyc A, Ulrychová L, O'Donoghue AJ, Vondrášek J, Marešová L, Hubálek M, Fajtová P, Chanová M, Jiang Z, Craik CS, Caffrey CR, Mareš M, Dvorák J, Horn M

Substrate Specificity of Cysteine Proteases Beyond the S2 Pocket: Mutagenesis and Molecular Dynamics Investigation of Fasciola hepatica Cathepsins L.

Frontiers in molecular biosciences

Corvo I, Ferraro F, Merlino A, Zuberbühler K, O'Donoghue AJ, Pastro L, Pi-Denis N, Basika T, Roche L, McKerrow JH, Craik CS, Caffrey CR, Tort JF

Fab-based inhibitors reveal ubiquitin independent functions for HIV Vif neutralization of APOBEC3 restriction factors.

PLoS pathogens

Binning JM, Smith AM, Hultquist JF, Craik CS, Caretta Cartozo N, Campbell MG, Burton L, La Greca F, McGregor MJ, Ta HM, Bartholomeeusen K, Peterlin BM, Krogan NJ, Sevillano N, Cheng Y, Gross JD

Cryo-EM structures of the TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel.

Nature

Dang S, Feng S, Tien J, Peters CJ, Bulkley D, Lolicato M, Zhao J, Zuberbühler K, Ye W, Qi L, Chen T, Craik CS, Jan YN, Minor DL, Cheng Y, Jan LY

Global substrate specificity profiling of post-translational modifying enzymes.

Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society

Ivry SL, Meyer NO, Winter MB, Bohn MF, Knudsen GM, O'Donoghue AJ, Craik CS

Immunoproteasome functions explained by divergence in cleavage specificity and regulation.

eLife

Winter MB, La Greca F, Arastu-Kapur S, Caiazza F, Cimermancic P, Buchholz TJ, Anderl JL, Ravalin M, Bohn MF, Sali A, O'Donoghue AJ, Craik CS

Imaging PD-L1 Expression with ImmunoPET.

Bioconjugate chemistry

Truillet C, Oh HLJ, Yeo SP, Lee CY, Huynh LT, Wei J, Parker MFL, Blakely C, Sevillano N, Wang YH, Shen YS, Olivas V, Jami KM, Moroz A, Jego B, Jaumain E, Fong L, Craik CS, Chang AJ, Bivona TG, Wang CI, Evans MJ

Biochemical Basis for Distinct Roles of the Heterochromatin Proteins Swi6 and Chp2.

Journal of molecular biology

Isaac RS, Sanulli S, Tibble R, Hornsby M, Ravalin M, Craik CS, Gross JD, Narlikar GJ

Allosteric Inhibitors, Crystallography, and Comparative Analysis Reveal Network of Coordinated Movement across Human Herpesvirus Proteases.

Journal of the American Chemical Society

Acker TM, Gable JE, Bohn MF, Jaishankar P, Thompson MC, Fraser JS, Renslo AR, Craik CS

Matriptase Induction of Metalloproteinase-Dependent Aggrecanolysis In Vitro and In Vivo: Promotion of Osteoarthritic Cartilage Damage by Multiple Mechanisms.

Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.)

Wilkinson DJ, Habgood A, Lamb HK, Thompson P, Hawkins AR, Désilets A, Leduc R, Steinmetzer T, Hammami M, Lee MS, Craik CS, Watson S, Lin H, Milner JM, Rowan AD

Substrate Profiling and High Resolution Co-complex Crystal Structure of a Secreted C11 Protease Conserved across Commensal Bacteria.

ACS chemical biology

Roncase EJ, Moon C, Chatterjee S, González-Páez GE, Craik CS, O'Donoghue AJ, Wolan DW

Global Protease Activity Profiling Provides Differential Diagnosis of Pancreatic Cysts.

Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research

Ivry SL, Sharib JM, Dominguez DA, Roy N, Hatcher SE, Yip-Schneider MT, Schmidt CM, Brand RE, Park WG, Hebrok M, Kim GE, O'Donoghue AJ, Kirkwood KS, Craik CS

Synthesis and mechanistic evaluation of novel N'-benzylidene-carbohydrazide-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine derivatives as non-anionic antiplatelet agents.

European journal of medicinal chemistry

Lourenço AL, Salvador RRS, Silva LA, Saito MS, Mello JFR, Cabral LM, Rodrigues CR, Vera MAF, Muri EMF, de Souza AMT, Craik CS, Dias LRS, Castro HC, Sathler PC

Multiplex Substrate Profiling by Mass Spectrometry for Kinases as a Method for Revealing Quantitative Substrate Motifs.

Analytical chemistry

Meyer NO, O'Donoghue AJ, Schulze-Gahmen U, Ravalin M, Moss SM, Winter MB, Knudsen GM, Craik CS

Discovery of Reactive Microbiota-Derived Metabolites that Inhibit Host Proteases.

Cell

Guo CJ, Chang FY, Wyche TP, Backus KM, Acker TM, Funabashi M, Taketani M, Donia MS, Nayfach S, Pollard KS, Craik CS, Cravatt BF, Clardy J, Voigt CA, Fischbach MA

Integrated Activity and Genetic Profiling of Secreted Peptidases in Cryptococcus neoformans Reveals an Aspartyl Peptidase Required for Low pH Survival and Virulence.

PLoS pathogens

Clarke SC, Dumesic PA, Homer CM, O'Donoghue AJ, La Greca F, Pallova L, Majer P, Madhani HD, Craik CS

Clustering of disulfide-rich peptides provides scaffolds for hit discovery by phage display: application to interleukin-23.

BMC bioinformatics

Barkan DT, Cheng XL, Celino H, Tran TT, Bhandari A, Craik CS, Sali A, Smythe ML

Global Identification of Biofilm-Specific Proteolysis in Candida albicans.

mBio

Winter MB, Salcedo EC, Lohse MB, Hartooni N, Gulati M, Sanchez H, Takagi J, Hube B, Andes DR, Johnson AD, Craik CS, Nobile CJ

Procathepsin E is highly abundant but minimally active in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tumors.

Biological chemistry

O'Donoghue AJ, Ivry SL, Chaudhury C, Hostetter DR, Hanahan D, Craik CS

Cysteine and Aspartyl Proteases Contribute to Protein Digestion in the Gut of Freshwater Planaria.

PLoS neglected tropical diseases

Goupil LS, Ivry SL, Hsieh I, Suzuki BM, Craik CS, O'Donoghue AJ, McKerrow JH

Label-Free Electrical Detection of Enzymatic Reactions in Nanochannels.

ACS nano

Duan C, Alibakhshi MA, Kim DK, Brown CM, Craik CS, Majumdar A

Design of Selective Substrates and Activity-Based Probes for Hydrolase Important for Pathogenesis 1 (HIP1) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

ACS infectious diseases

Lentz CS, Ordonez AA, Kasperkiewicz P, La Greca F, O'Donoghue AJ, Schulze CJ, Powers JC, Craik CS, Drag M, Jain SK, Bogyo M

Intracellular Action of a Secreted Peptide Required for Fungal Virulence.

Cell host & microbe

Homer CM, Summers DK, Goranov AI, Clarke SC, Wiesner DL, Diedrich JK, Moresco JJ, Toffaletti D, Upadhya R, Caradonna I, Petnic S, Pessino V, Cuomo CA, Lodge JK, Perfect J, Yates JR, Nielsen K, Craik CS, Madhani HD

Matriptase activation connects tissue factor-dependent coagulation initiation to epithelial proteolysis and signaling.

Blood

Le Gall SM, Szabo R, Lee M, Kirchhofer D, Craik CS, Bugge TH, Camerer E

Site-Specific Radiofluorination of Biomolecules with 8-[(18)F]-Fluorooctanoic Acid Catalyzed by Lipoic Acid Ligase.

ACS chemical biology

Drake CR, Sevillano N, Truillet C, Craik CS, VanBrocklin HF, Evans MJ

Quantitative MS-based enzymology of caspases reveals distinct protein substrate specificities, hierarchies, and cellular roles.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Julien O, Zhuang M, Wiita AP, O'Donoghue AJ, Knudsen GM, Craik CS, Wells JA

Structure- and function-based design of Plasmodium-selective proteasome inhibitors.

Nature

Li H, O'Donoghue AJ, van der Linden WA, Xie SC, Yoo E, Foe IT, Tilley L, Craik CS, da Fonseca PC, Bogyo M

Fragment-Based Protein-Protein Interaction Antagonists of a Viral Dimeric Protease.

ChemMedChem

Gable JE, Lee GM, Acker TM, Hulce KR, Gonzalez ER, Schweigler P, Melkko S, Farady CJ, Craik CS

Complementary Proteomic and Biochemical Analysis of Peptidases in Lobster Gastric Juice Uncovers the Functional Role of Individual Enzymes in Food Digestion.

Marine biotechnology (New York, N.Y.)

Bibo-Verdugo B, O'Donoghue AJ, Rojo-Arreola L, Craik CS, García-Carreño F

In vivo imaging of protease activity by Probody therapeutic activation.

Biochimie

Wong KR, Menendez E, Craik CS, Kavanaugh WM, Vasiljeva O

Non-invasive imaging and cellular tracking of pulmonary emboli by near-infrared fluorescence and positron-emission tomography.

Nature communications

Page MJ, Lourenço AL, David T, LeBeau AM, Cattaruzza F, Castro HC, VanBrocklin HF, Coughlin SR, Craik CS

Excretion/secretion products from Schistosoma mansoni adults, eggs and schistosomula have unique peptidase specificity profiles.

Biochimie

Dvorák J, Fajtová P, Ulrychová L, Leontovyc A, Rojo-Arreola L, Suzuki BM, Horn M, Mareš M, Craik CS, Caffrey CR, O'Donoghue AJ

Destructin-1 is a collagen-degrading endopeptidase secreted by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

O'Donoghue AJ, Knudsen GM, Beekman C, Perry JA, Johnson AD, DeRisi JL, Craik CS, Bennett RJ

Ecotin: Exploring a feasible antithrombotic profile.

International journal of biological macromolecules

Wermelinger LS, Frattani FS, Carneiro-Lobo TC, Craik CS, Castro HC, Zingali RB

Imaging active urokinase plasminogen activator in prostate cancer.

Cancer research

LeBeau AM, Sevillano N, Markham K, Winter MB, Murphy ST, Hostetter DR, West J, Lowman H, Craik CS, VanBrocklin HF

Structural requirements for the collagenase and elastase activity of cathepsin K and its selective inhibition by an exosite inhibitor.

The Biochemical journal

Sharma V, Panwar P, O'Donoghue AJ, Cui H, Guido RV, Craik CS, Brömme D

Subnanometre-resolution electron cryomicroscopy structure of a heterodimeric ABC exporter.

Nature

Kim J, Wu S, Tomasiak TM, Mergel C, Winter MB, Stiller SB, Robles-Colmanares Y, Stroud RM, Tampé R, Craik CS, Cheng Y

Structure-function analyses of human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 establish the 99-loop as master regulator of activity.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Skala W, Utzschneider DT, Magdolen V, Debela M, Guo S, Craik CS, Brandstetter H, Goettig P

Cullin E3 ligases and their rewiring by viral factors.

Biomolecules

Mahon C, Krogan NJ, Craik CS, Pick E

The androgen-regulated protease TMPRSS2 activates a proteolytic cascade involving components of the tumor microenvironment and promotes prostate cancer metastasis.

Cancer discovery

Lucas JM, Heinlein C, Kim T, Hernandez SA, Malik MS, True LD, Morrissey C, Corey E, Montgomery B, Mostaghel E, Clegg N, Coleman I, Brown CM, Schneider EL, Craik C, Simon JA, Bedalov A, Nelson PS

Broad-spectrum allosteric inhibition of herpesvirus proteases.

Biochemistry

Gable JE, Lee GM, Jaishankar P, Hearn BR, Waddling CA, Renslo AR, Craik CS

Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) ligation induces a raft-localized integrin signaling switch that mediates the hypermotile phenotype of fibrotic fibroblasts.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Grove LM, Southern BD, Jin TH, White KE, Paruchuri S, Harel E, Wei Y, Rahaman SO, Gladson CL, Ding Q, Craik CS, Chapman HA, Olman MA

Imaging the urokinase plasminongen activator receptor in preclinical breast cancer models of acquired drug resistance.

Theranostics

LeBeau AM, Sevillano N, King ML, Duriseti S, Murphy ST, Craik CS, Murphy LL, VanBrocklin HF

MEK-dependent negative feedback underlies BCR-ABL-mediated oncogene addiction.

Cancer discovery

Asmussen J, Lasater EA, Tajon C, Oses-Prieto J, Jun YW, Taylor BS, Burlingame A, Craik CS, Shah NP

Elastin degradation by cathepsin V requires two exosites.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Du X, Chen NL, Wong A, Craik CS, Brömme D

Global substrate profiling of proteases in human neutrophil extracellular traps reveals consensus motif predominantly contributed by elastase.

PloS one

O'Donoghue AJ, Jin Y, Knudsen GM, Perera NC, Jenne DE, Murphy JE, Craik CS, Hermiston TW

Dissecting the active site of the collagenolytic cathepsin L3 protease of the invasive stage of Fasciola hepatica.

PLoS neglected tropical diseases

Corvo I, O'Donoghue AJ, Pastro L, Pi-Denis N, Eroy-Reveles A, Roche L, McKerrow JH, Dalton JP, Craik CS, Caffrey CR, Tort JF

Substrate specificity of MarP, a periplasmic protease required for resistance to acid and oxidative stress in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Small JL, O'Donoghue AJ, Boritsch EC, Tsodikov OV, Knudsen GM, Vandal O, Craik CS, Ehrt S

Mutational tail loss is an evolutionary mechanism for liberating marapsins and other type I serine proteases from transmembrane anchors.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Raman K, Trivedi NN, Raymond WW, Ganesan R, Kirchhofer D, Verghese GM, Craik CS, Schneider EL, Nimishakavi S, Caughey GH

Targeting uPAR with antagonistic recombinant human antibodies in aggressive breast cancer.

Cancer research

LeBeau AM, Duriseti S, Murphy ST, Pepin F, Hann B, Gray JW, VanBrocklin HF, Craik CS

Imaging a functional tumorigenic biomarker in the transformed epithelium.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

LeBeau AM, Lee M, Murphy ST, Hann BC, Warren RS, Delos Santos R, Kurhanewicz J, Hanash SM, VanBrocklin HF, Craik CS

Mapping inhibitor binding modes on an active cysteine protease via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Biochemistry

Lee GM, Balouch E, Goetz DH, Lazic A, McKerrow JH, Craik CS

Global identification of peptidase specificity by multiplex substrate profiling.

Nature methods

O'Donoghue AJ, Eroy-Reveles AA, Knudsen GM, Ingram J, Zhou M, Statnekov JB, Greninger AL, Hostetter DR, Qu G, Maltby DA, Anderson MO, Derisi JL, McKerrow JH, Burlingame AL, Craik CS

Activity and inhibition of prostasin and matriptase on apical and basolateral surfaces of human airway epithelial cells.

American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology

Nimishakavi S, Besprozvannaya M, Raymond WW, Craik CS, Gruenert DC, Caughey GH

Characterization of gut-associated cathepsin D hemoglobinase from tick Ixodes ricinus (IrCD1).

The Journal of biological chemistry

Sojka D, Franta Z, Frantová H, Bartosová P, Horn M, Váchová J, O'Donoghue AJ, Eroy-Reveles AA, Craik CS, Knudsen GM, Caffrey CR, McKerrow JH, Mares M, Kopácek P

Fabs enable single particle cryoEM studies of small proteins.

Structure (London, England : 1993)

Wu S, Avila-Sakar A, Kim J, Booth DS, Greenberg CH, Rossi A, Liao M, Li X, Alian A, Griner SL, Juge N, Yu Y, Mergel CM, Chaparro-Riggers J, Strop P, Tampé R, Edwards RH, Stroud RM, Craik CS, Cheng Y

Investigation of the proteolytic functions of an expanded cercarial elastase gene family in Schistosoma mansoni.

PLoS neglected tropical diseases

Ingram JR, Rafi SB, Eroy-Reveles AA, Ray M, Lambeth L, Hsieh I, Ruelas D, Lim KC, Sakanari J, Craik CS, Jacobson MP, McKerrow JH

Analysis of Fasciola cathepsin L5 by S2 subsite substitutions and determination of the P1-P4 specificity reveals an unusual preference.

Biochimie

Norbury LJ, Hung A, Beckham S, Pike RN, Spithill TW, Craik CS, Choe Y, Fecondo JV, Smooker PM

Global landscape of HIV-human protein complexes.

Nature

Jäger S, Cimermancic P, Gulbahce N, Johnson JR, McGovern KE, Clarke SC, Shales M, Mercenne G, Pache L, Li K, Hernandez H, Jang GM, Roth SL, Akiva E, Marlett J, Stephens M, D'Orso I, Fernandes J, Fahey M, Mahon C, O'Donoghue AJ, Todorovic A, Morris JH, Maltby DA, Alber T, Cagney G, Bushman FD, Young JA, Chanda SK, Sundquist WI, Kortemme T, Hernandez RD, Craik CS, Burlingame A, Sali A, Frankel AD, Krogan NJ

Vif hijacks CBF-ß to degrade APOBEC3G and promote HIV-1 infection.

Nature

Jäger S, Kim DY, Hultquist JF, Shindo K, LaRue RS, Kwon E, Li M, Anderson BD, Yen L, Stanley D, Mahon C, Kane J, Franks-Skiba K, Cimermancic P, Burlingame A, Sali A, Craik CS, Harris RS, Gross JD, Krogan NJ

A reverse binding motif that contributes to specific protease inhibition by antibodies.

Journal of molecular biology

Schneider EL, Lee MS, Baharuddin A, Goetz DH, Farady CJ, Ward M, Wang CI, Craik CS

Rapid identification of recombinant Fabs that bind to membrane proteins.

Methods (San Diego, Calif.)

Kim J, Stroud RM, Craik CS

Inhibition of Granzyme B by PI-9 protects prostate cancer cells from apoptosis.

The Prostate

Ray M, Hostetter DR, Loeb CR, Simko J, Craik CS

Human and mouse granzyme M display divergent and species-specific substrate specificities.

The Biochemical journal

de Poot SA, Westgeest M, Hostetter DR, Van Damme P, Plasman K, Demeyer K, Broekhuizen R, Gevaert K, Craik CS, Bovenschen N

Inhibitors of SARS-CoV entry--identification using an internally-controlled dual envelope pseudovirion assay.

Antiviral research

Zhou Y, Agudelo J, Lu K, Goetz DH, Hansell E, Chen YT, Roush WR, McKerrow J, Craik CS, Amberg SM, Simmons G

IrCL1 - the haemoglobinolytic cathepsin L of the hard tick, Ixodes ricinus.

International journal for parasitology

Franta Z, Sojka D, Frantova H, Dvorak J, Horn M, Srba J, Talacko P, Mares M, Schneider E, Craik CS, McKerrow JH, Caffrey CR, Kopacek P

GPS-Prot: a web-based visualization platform for integrating host-pathogen interaction data.

BMC bioinformatics

Fahey ME, Bennett MJ, Mahon C, Jäger S, Pache L, Kumar D, Shapiro A, Rao K, Chanda SK, Craik CS, Frankel AD, Krogan NJ

Enzyme inhibition by allosteric capture of an inactive conformation.

Journal of molecular biology

Lee GM, Shahian T, Baharuddin A, Gable JE, Craik CS

Proteases as therapeutics.

The Biochemical journal

Craik CS, Page MJ, Madison EL

Peptide length and leaving-group sterics influence potency of peptide phosphonate protease inhibitors.

Chemistry & biology

Brown CM, Ray M, Eroy-Reveles AA, Egea P, Tajon C, Craik CS

Mechanisms of macromolecular protease inhibitors.

Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology

Farady CJ, Craik CS

The oligopeptidase B of Leishmania regulates parasite enolase and immune evasion.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Swenerton RK, Zhang S, Sajid M, Medzihradszky KF, Craik CS, Kelly BL, McKerrow JH

Biochemical properties of a novel cysteine protease of Plasmodium vivax, vivapain-4.

PLoS neglected tropical diseases

Na BK, Bae YA, Zo YG, Choe Y, Kim SH, Desai PV, Avery MA, Craik CS, Kim TS, Rosenthal PJ, Kong Y

How immune peptidases change specificity: cathepsin G gained tryptic function but lost efficiency during primate evolution.

Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

Raymond WW, Trivedi NN, Makarova A, Ray M, Craik CS, Caughey GH

Characterization of proteinases from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus involved in the generation of antimicrobial peptides.

Parasites & vectors

Cruz CE, Fogaça AC, Nakayasu ES, Angeli CB, Belmonte R, Almeida IC, Miranda A, Miranda MT, Tanaka AS, Braz GR, Craik CS, Schneider E, Caffrey CR, Daffre S

Prediction of protease substrates using sequence and structure features.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England)

Barkan DT, Hostetter DR, Mahrus S, Pieper U, Wells JA, Craik CS, Sali A

Antagonistic anti-urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) antibodies significantly inhibit uPAR-mediated cellular signaling and migration.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Duriseti S, Goetz DH, Hostetter DR, LeBeau AM, Wei Y, Craik CS

A novel Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteinase, EhCP4, is key for invasive amebiasis and a therapeutic target.

The Journal of biological chemistry

He C, Nora GP, Schneider EL, Kerr ID, Hansell E, Hirata K, Gonzalez D, Sajid M, Boyd SE, Hruz P, Cobo ER, Le C, Liu WT, Eckmann L, Dorrestein PC, Houpt ER, Brinen LS, Craik CS, Roush WR, McKerrow J, Reed SL

Analysis of an engineered plasma kallikrein inhibitor and its effect on contact activation.

Biological chemistry

Stoop AA, Joshi RV, Eggers CT, Craik CS

Mycobacterium tuberculosis MycP1 protease plays a dual role in regulation of ESX-1 secretion and virulence.

Cell host & microbe

Ohol YM, Goetz DH, Chan K, Shiloh MU, Craik CS, Cox JS

Time-resolved single-step protease activity quantification using nanoplasmonic resonator sensors.

ACS nano

Sun C, Su KH, Valentine J, Rosa-Bauza YT, Ellman JA, Elboudwarej O, Mukherjee B, Craik CS, Shuman MA, Chen FF, Zhang X

Tumor detection by imaging proteolytic activity.

Cancer research

Darragh MR, Schneider EL, Lou J, Phojanakong PJ, Farady CJ, Marks JD, Hann BC, Craik CS

Local protease signaling contributes to neural tube closure in the mouse embryo.

Developmental cell

Camerer E, Barker A, Duong DN, Ganesan R, Kataoka H, Cornelissen I, Darragh MR, Hussain A, Zheng YW, Srinivasan Y, Brown C, Xu SM, Regard JB, Lin CY, Craik CS, Kirchhofer D, Coughlin SR

Continuous imaging of plasmon rulers in live cells reveals early-stage caspase-3 activation at the single-molecule level.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Jun YW, Sheikholeslami S, Hostetter DR, Tajon C, Craik CS, Alivisatos AP

Engineering ecotin for identifying proteins with a trypsin fold.

Applied biochemistry and biotechnology

Sathler PC, Craik CS, Takeuchi T, Zingali RB, Castro HC

Inhibition of a viral enzyme by a small-molecule dimer disruptor.

Nature chemical biology

Shahian T, Lee GM, Lazic A, Arnold LA, Velusamy P, Roels CM, Guy RK, Craik CS

Vinyl sulfones as antiparasitic agents and a structural basis for drug design.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Kerr ID, Lee JH, Farady CJ, Marion R, Rickert M, Sajid M, Pandey KC, Caffrey CR, Legac J, Hansell E, McKerrow JH, Craik CS, Rosenthal PJ, Brinen LS

SmCL3, a gastrodermal cysteine protease of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

PLoS neglected tropical diseases

Dvorák J, Mashiyama ST, Sajid M, Braschi S, Delcroix M, Schneider EL, McKerrow WH, Bahgat M, Hansell E, Babbitt PC, Craik CS, McKerrow JH, Caffrey CR

Improving the species cross-reactivity of an antibody using computational design.

Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters

Farady CJ, Sellers BD, Jacobson MP, Craik CS

Substrate specificity of transthyretin: identification of natural substrates in the nervous system.

The Biochemical journal

Liz MA, Fleming CE, Nunes AF, Almeida MR, Mar FM, Choe Y, Craik CS, Powers JC, Bogyo M, Sousa MM

Trapping moving targets with small molecules.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Lee GM, Craik CS

Hemoglobin cleavage site-specificity of the Plasmodium falciparum cysteine proteases falcipain-2 and falcipain-3.

PloS one

Subramanian S, Hardt M, Choe Y, Niles RK, Johansen EB, Legac J, Gut J, Kerr ID, Craik CS, Rosenthal PJ

Positional scanning synthetic combinatorial libraries for substrate profiling.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)

Schneider EL, Craik CS

A parasite cysteine protease is key to host protein degradation and iron acquisition.

The Journal of biological chemistry

O'Brien TC, Mackey ZB, Fetter RD, Choe Y, O'Donoghue AJ, Zhou M, Craik CS, Caffrey CR, McKerrow JH

Inhibition of a secreted glutamic peptidase prevents growth of the fungus Talaromyces emersonii.

The Journal of biological chemistry

O'Donoghue AJ, Mahon CS, Goetz DH, O'Malley JM, Gallagher DM, Zhou M, Murray PG, Craik CS, Tuohy MG

The functional expression and characterisation of a cysteine peptidase from the invasive stage of the neuropathogenic schistosome Trichobilharzia regenti.

International journal for parasitology

Dolecková K, Kasný M, Mikes L, Cartwright J, Jedelský P, Schneider EL, Dvorák J, Mountford AP, Craik CS, Horák P

Characterization of a cysteine protease from Tritrichomonas foetus that induces host-cell apoptosis.

Archives of biochemistry and biophysics

Lucas JJ, Hayes GR, Kalsi HK, Gilbert RO, Choe Y, Craik CS, Singh BN

Structures and specificity of the human kallikrein-related peptidases KLK 4, 5, 6, and 7.

Biological chemistry

Debela M, Beaufort N, Magdolen V, Schechter NM, Craik CS, Schmitt M, Bode W, Goettig P

Structure of an Fab-protease complex reveals a highly specific non-canonical mechanism of inhibition.

Journal of molecular biology

Farady CJ, Egea PF, Schneider EL, Darragh MR, Craik CS

Identification of the major cysteine protease of Giardia and its role in encystation.

The Journal of biological chemistry

DuBois KN, Abodeely M, Sakanari J, Craik CS, Lee M, McKerrow JH, Sajid M

Using specificity to strategically target proteases.

Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry

Lim MD, Craik CS

MT-SP1 proteolysis and regulation of cell-microenvironment interactions.

Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library

Darragh MR, Bhatt AS, Craik CS

Structural and functional relationships in the virulence-associated cathepsin L proteases of the parasitic liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Stack CM, Caffrey CR, Donnelly SM, Seshaadri A, Lowther J, Tort JF, Collins PR, Robinson MW, Xu W, McKerrow JH, Craik CS, Geiger SR, Marion R, Brinen LS, Dalton JP

Substrate modulation of enzyme activity in the herpesvirus protease family.

Journal of molecular biology

Lazic A, Goetz DH, Nomura AM, Marnett AB, Craik CS

Hip is a pro-survival substrate of granzyme B.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Hostetter DR, Loeb CR, Chu F, Craik CS

Peptide-nanoparticle hybrid SERS probes for optical detection of protease activity.

Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology

Liu GL, Rosa-Bauza YT, Salisbury CM, Craik C, Ellman JA, Chen FF, Lee LP

Use of recombinant Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteinase 1 to identify a potent inhibitor of amebic invasion in a human colonic model.

Eukaryotic cell

Meléndez-López SG, Herdman S, Hirata K, Choi MH, Choe Y, Craik C, Caffrey CR, Hansell E, Chávez-Munguía B, Chen YT, Roush WR, McKerrow J, Eckmann L, Guo J, Stanley SL, Reed SL

The mechanism of inhibition of antibody-based inhibitors of membrane-type serine protease 1 (MT-SP1).

Journal of molecular biology

Farady CJ, Sun J, Darragh MR, Miller SM, Craik CS

Coordinate expression and functional profiling identify an extracellular proteolytic signaling pathway.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Bhatt AS, Welm A, Farady CJ, Vásquez M, Wilson K, Craik CS

IrAE: an asparaginyl endopeptidase (legumain) in the gut of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus.

International journal for parasitology

Sojka D, Hajdusek O, Dvorák J, Sajid M, Franta Z, Schneider EL, Craik CS, Vancová M, Buresová V, Bogyo M, Sexton KB, McKerrow JH, Caffrey CR, Kopácek P

Isotope-coded and affinity-tagged cross-linking (ICATXL): an efficient strategy to probe protein interaction surfaces.

Journal of the American Chemical Society

Chu F, Mahrus S, Craik CS, Burlingame AL

Expression and characterization of constitutively active human caspase-14.

Biochemical and biophysical research communications

Park K, Kuechle MK, Choe Y, Craik CS, Lawrence OT, Presland RB

Plasminogen activation independent of uPA and tPA maintains wound healing in gene-deficient mice.

The EMBO journal

Lund LR, Green KA, Stoop AA, Ploug M, Almholt K, Lilla J, Nielsen BS, Christensen IJ, Craik CS, Werb Z, Danø K, Rømer J

Specificity profiling of seven human tissue kallikreins reveals individual subsite preferences.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Debela M, Magdolen V, Schechter N, Valachova M, Lottspeich F, Craik CS, Choe Y, Bode W, Goettig P

Ecotin modulates thrombin activity through exosite-2 interactions.

The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology

Castro HC, Monteiro RQ, Assafim M, Loureiro NI, Craik C, Zingali RB

Conversion of trypsin to a functional threonine protease.

Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society

Baird TT, Wright WD, Craik CS

One functional switch mediates reversible and irreversible inactivation of a herpesvirus protease.

Biochemistry

Nomura AM, Marnett AB, Shimba N, Dötsch V, Craik CS

Substrate profiling of cysteine proteases using a combinatorial peptide library identifies functionally unique specificities.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Choe Y, Leonetti F, Greenbaum DC, Lecaille F, Bogyo M, Brömme D, Ellman JA, Craik CS

Induced structure of a helical switch as a mechanism to regulate enzymatic activity.

Nature structural & molecular biology

Nomura AM, Marnett AB, Shimba N, Dötsch V, Craik CS

Hepatocyte growth factor is a preferred in vitro substrate for human hepsin, a membrane-anchored serine protease implicated in prostate and ovarian cancers.

The Biochemical journal

Herter S, Piper DE, Aaron W, Gabriele T, Cutler G, Cao P, Bhatt AS, Choe Y, Craik CS, Walker N, Meininger D, Hoey T, Austin RJ

Adhesion signaling by a novel mitotic substrate of src kinases.

Oncogene

Bhatt AS, Erdjument-Bromage H, Tempst P, Craik CS, Moasser MM

Development of alpha-keto-based inhibitors of cruzain, a cysteine protease implicated in Chagas disease.

Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry

Choe Y, Brinen LS, Price MS, Engel JC, Lange M, Grisostomi C, Weston SG, Pallai PV, Cheng H, Hardy LW, Hartsough DS, McMakin M, Tilton RF, Baldino CM, Craik CS

Substrates of the prostate-specific serine protease prostase/KLK4 defined by positional-scanning peptide libraries.

The Prostate

Matsumura M, Bhatt AS, Andress D, Clegg N, Takayama TK, Craik CS, Nelson PS

Optimization of 13C direct detection NMR methods.

Journal of biomolecular NMR

Shimba N, Kovacs H, Stern AS, Nomura AM, Shimada I, Hoch JC, Craik CS, Dötsch V

A multi-enzyme cascade of hemoglobin proteolysis in the intestine of blood-feeding hookworms.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Williamson AL, Lecchi P, Turk BE, Choe Y, Hotez PJ, McKerrow JH, Cantley LC, Sajid M, Craik CS, Loukas A

Methyl groups as probes for proteins and complexes in in-cell NMR experiments.

Journal of the American Chemical Society

Serber Z, Straub W, Corsini L, Nomura AM, Shimba N, Craik CS, Ortiz de Montellano P, Dötsch V

Communication between the active sites and dimer interface of a herpesvirus protease revealed by a transition-state inhibitor.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Marnett AB, Nomura AM, Shimba N, Ortiz de Montellano PR, Craik CS

The periplasmic serine protease inhibitor ecotin protects bacteria against neutrophil elastase.

The Biochemical journal

Eggers CT, Murray IA, Delmar VA, Day AG, Craik CS

Identification and biochemical characterization of vivapains, cysteine proteases of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax.

The Biochemical journal

Na BK, Shenai BR, Sijwali PS, Choe Y, Pandey KC, Singh A, Craik CS, Rosenthal PJ

Untitled Publication

Brachyurins. Tsu, C., and Craik, C.S. Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes

Untitled Publication

Shimba, N. Nomura, A.M., Marnett, A.B. and Craik, C.S. Herpesvirus Protease Inhibition by Dimer Disruption. J. Virol

Quantitative identification of the protonation state of histidines in vitro and in vivo.

Biochemistry

Shimba N, Serber Z, Ledwidge R, Miller SM, Craik CS, Dötsch V

The oligomeric structure of human granzyme A is a determinant of its extended substrate specificity.

Nature structural biology

Bell JK, Goetz DH, Mahrus S, Harris JL, Fletterick RJ, Craik CS

Catalytic properties and inhibition of proline-specific dipeptidyl peptidases II, IV and VII.

The Biochemical journal

Leiting B, Pryor KD, Wu JK, Marsilio F, Patel RA, Craik CS, Ellman JA, Cummings RT, Thornberry NA

The CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response can be blocked by protease inhibitors.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Mackewicz CE, Craik CS, Levy JA

Elimination of 13Calpha splitting in protein NMR spectra by deconvolution with maximum entropy reconstruction.

Journal of the American Chemical Society

Shimba N, Stern AS, Craik CS, Hoch JC, Dötsch V

Quantitation of membrane type serine protease 1 (MT-SP1) in transformed and normal cells.

Biological chemistry

Bhatt AS, Takeuchi T, Ylstra B, Ginzinger D, Albertson D, Shuman MA, Craik CS

Design and synthesis of novel inhibitors of gelatinase B.

Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters

Wang X, Choe Y, Craik CS, Ellman JA

Cercarial elastase is encoded by a functionally conserved gene family across multiple species of schistosomes.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Salter JP, Choe Y, Albrecht H, Franklin C, Lim KC, Craik CS, McKerrow JH

Substrate specificity of schistosome versus human legumain determined by P1-P3 peptide libraries.

Molecular and biochemical parasitology

Mathieu MA, Bogyo M, Caffrey CR, Choe Y, Lee J, Chapman H, Sajid M, Craik CS, McKerrow JH

Computer-assisted mutagenesis of ecotin to engineer its secondary binding site for urokinase inhibition.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Laboissière MC, Young MM, Pinho RG, Todd S, Fletterick RJ, Kuntz I, Craik CS

Chemically mediated site-specific proteolysis. Alteration of protein-protein interaction.

Biochemistry

Wang B, Brown KC, Lodder M, Craik CS, Hecht SM

Expedient solid-phase synthesis of fluorogenic protease substrates using the 7-amino-4-carbamoylmethylcoumarin (ACC) fluorophore.

The Journal of organic chemistry

Maly DJ, Leonetti F, Backes BJ, Dauber DS, Harris JL, Craik CS, Ellman JA

Conformational change coupling the dimerization and activation of KSHV protease.

Biochemistry

Pray TR, Reiling KK, Demirjian BG, Craik CS

Altered substrate specificity of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease.

Journal of virology

Dauber DS, Ziermann R, Parkin N, Maly DJ, Mahrus S, Harris JL, Ellman JA, Petropoulos C, Craik CS

J. Am. Chem. Soc

Chemically Mediated Site-Specific Cleavage of Proteins

B. Wang, M. Lodder, J. Zhou, T.T. Baird, Jr., K.C. Brown, C.S. Craik, S.M. Hecht

Untitled Publication

K.K. Reiling, T.R. Pray, C.S. Craik, R.M. Stroud. Structure: Regulation of Activity and Dimerization by Conserved Structural Elements. Biochemistry

Untitled Publication

T.T. Baird Jr., B. Wang, M. Lodder, S.M. Hecht and C.S. Craik. Generation of Active Trypsin by Chemical Cleavage. Tetrahedron Letters

Untitled Publication

C.S. Craik & R.J. Fletterick. The Marriage of Protein Structure and Pharmaceutical Discovery. Biotech. & Appl. Biochem. 26

Untitled Publication

E.E. Rutenber, F. McPhee, A.P. Kaplan, S.L. Gallion, J.C. Hogan Jr., C.S. Craik & R.M. Stroud. A New Class of HIV1 Protease Inhibitor: The Crystallographic Structure, Inhibition and Chemical Synthesis of an Aminimide Peptide Isostere. Bioorg.& Med. Chem. 4

Untitled Publication

R. Li, X. Chen, B. Gong, Z. Li, E. Davidson, G. Kurzban, R.E. Miller, E.O. Nuzman, J.H. McKerrow, R.J. Fletterick, S.A. Gillmore, C.S. Craik, I.D. Kuntz, F.E. Cohen & G.L. Kenyon. Structure-based Design of Parasitic Protease Inhibitors. Bioorg. & Med. Chem. 4

Untitled Publication

S. Halfon & C.S. Craik. Regulation of Proteolytic Activity by Engineered Tridentate Metal Binding Loops. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118

Untitled Publication

W.S. Willett, L.S. Brinen, R.J. Fletterick & C.S. Craik. Delocalizing Trypsin Specificity with Metal-Activation. Biochem; 35

Untitled Publication

Z. Yu, P. Caldera, F. McPhee, J. DeVoss, P.R. Jones, A. Burlingame, I. Kuntz, C.S. Craik & P.R. Ortiz de Montellano. Irreversible Inhibition of the HIV-1 Protease: Targeting Alkylating Agents to the Catalytic Aspartate Groups. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 118

Untitled Publication

A.E. Eakin, J.H. McKerrow & C.S.Craik. A Cysteine Protease is a Target for the Enzyme Structure-based Design of Antiparasitic Drugs. Drug Information Journal 29

Untitled Publication

K.L. Lee, F. McPhee, J.J. DeVoss, C.S. Craik & P. Ortiz de Montellano. Nonpeptide HIV Protease Inhibitors. Differential Introduction of Alkylamino Groups into the two Aryl Rings of Haloperidol. J. of Organic Chemistry 59

J. Bio. Chem

Structure of a Non-Peptide Inhibitor Complexed with HIV-1 Protease: Developing a Cycle of Structure-Based Drug Design

E. Rutenber, E.B. Fauman, R.J. Keenan, S. Fong, P.S. Furth, P.R. Ortiz de Montellano, E. Meng, I.D. Kuntz, D.L. DeCamp, R. Salto, J.R. Rosé, C.S. Craik, R.M. Stroud.

Synthesis

Synthesis of Haloperidol Ethanedithioketal HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors: Magnesium Chloride Facilitated Addition of Grignard Reagents

Z. Sui, J. DeVoss, D. DeCamp, J. Li, C.S. Craik & P.R. Ortiz de Montellano

Untitled Publication

D.L. Decamp, S.B. Kahl & C.S. Craik. Boronated Porphyrins—A New Class of HIV Proteinase Inhibitors. Intl. Antiviral News 1

Untitled Publication

J.J. Perona, C.A. Tsu, M.E. McGrath, C.S. Craik & R.J. Fletterick. Relocating a Negative Charge in the Binding Pocket of Trypsin. J. Mol. Bio. 230

Untitled Publication

T.K. Sawyer, J.F. Fisher, J.B. Hester, C.W. Smith, A.G. Tomasselli, W.G. Tarpley, P.S. Burton, J.O. Hui T.J. McQuade, R.A. Conradi, V.S. Bradford, L. Liu, J.H. Kinner, J.Tustin,D.L. Alexander, A.W. Harrison, D.E. Emmert, D.J. Staples, L.I. Maggira, Y.Z. Zhang, R.A. Poorman, BM. Dunn, C. Rao, .E. Scarborough, W.T. Lowther, C.S. Craik, D. DeCamp, J.Moon, W.H. Howe & R.L. Heinrikson. Peptidomimetic Inhibitors of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease (HIV-PR): Design, Enzyme Binding and Selectivity, Antiviral Efficacy and Cell Permeability Properties. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Letts 3

Untitled Publication

Z. Sui, R. Salto, C.S. Craik, P. Ortiz de Montellano. Inhibition of the HIV1 and the HIV2 Proteases by Curcumin and Curcumin Boron Complexes. Bioorg. & Med. Chem. Let. 1

Int. J. Pep. Protein Res

HIV Protease (HIV PR) Inhibitor Structure-Activity-Selectivity and Active Site Molecular Modeling of High Affinity Leu [CH(OH)CH2] Val Modified Viral and Nonviral Substrate Analogs

T.K. Sawyer, D.J. Staples, L. Liu, A.G. Tomasselli, J.O. Hui, K. O’Connell, H. Schostarez, J.B. Hester, J. Moon, W.J. Howe, C.W. Smith, D. L. DeCamp, C.S. Craik, B.M. Dunn,W. T. Lowther, J. Harris, R.A. Poorman, A. Wlodawer, M. Jaskolski & R.L. Heinrikson.

Untitled Publication

D.R. Corey, M.E. McGrath, J.R. Vasquez, R.J. Fletterick & C.S. Craik. An Alternate Geometry for the Catalytic Triad of Serine Proteases. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 114

A Primary Determinant for Lipoxygenase Postional Specificity. Nature 354, 149-152

A Primary Determinant for Lipoxygenase Postional Specificity. Nature 354, 149-152

D.L. Sloane, R. Leung, C.S. Craik & E. Sigal

Adv. Exptl. Med. Bio

Structure-based inhibition of HIV-1 protease activity and viral infectivity

D.L. DeCamp, L.M. Babé, P. Furth, P. Ortiz de Montellano, I.D. Kuntz & C.S. Craik

Untitled Publication

C.S.Craik. Modus Operandi. Nature

Untitled Publication

L. Evnin, J. Vasquez & C.S. Craik. Proc. Substrate Specificity of Trypsin Investigated Using a Genetic Selection. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87

Untitled Publication

A.L. Ferris, A. Hizi, S.D. Showalter, S. Pichuantes, L. Babé & C.S. Craik. Immunologic and Proteolytic Analysis of HIV-2 Reverse Transcriptase Structure. Virology 175

Untitled Publication

E. Stewart, C.S. Craik, L. Hake & A. Bowcock. Human CPA Identifies a BglII RFLP and Maps to 7q31-qter. Amer. J. Hum. Gen. 46, 795 -800

Untitled Publication

M. Obukowicz, M. Gustafson, K. Junger, R. Leimgruber, A. Wittwer, T-C. Wun, T. Warren, B. Bishop, K. Mathis, D. McPherson, N. Siegel, M. Jennings, B. Brightwell, J. Diaz-Collier, L. Bell, C.S. Craik & W. Tacon. Secretion of Active Kringle 2-Serine Protease in E. coli. J. Bio. Chem. 29, 9737-9745

Untitled Publication

S. Pichuantes, L. Babé, P. Barr, D. DeCamp & C.S. Craik. Recombinant HIV 2 Protease Processes HIV 1 Pr53gag and Analogous Junction Peptides In Vitro. J. Bio. Chem. 265, 13890-13898

[A case of aseptic meningoencephalitis with recurrent abnormal behavior, status epilepticus and aphthous stomatitis, improved by acyclovir].

Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology

Shimada K, Koh CS, Hashimoto T, Shoji S, Yanagisawa N

Untitled Publication

A. Eakin, J.N. Higaki, J.H. McKerrow & C.S. Craik. Cysteine or Serine Proteinase. Nature 342,132

Untitled Publication

J. Higaki L.B. Evnin & C.S. Craik. Introduction of a Cysteine Protease Active Site into Trypsin. Biochem. 28, 9256-9263

Untitled Publication

C.S. Craik, S. Roczniak, S. Sprang, R.J. Fletterick & W.J. Rutter. Edited by D. Cunningham and G. Long. New York: Alan R Liss, Inc. Redesigning Trypsin via Genetic Engineering. In: Proteases in Biological Control and Biotechnology

Untitled Publication

C.S. Craik. Edited by D. Oxender. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc. Expression and Overproduction of Proteins. In: Protein Structure, Folding and Design 2, pp. 467-476.

Untitled Publication

T.L. Burgess, C.S. Craik, L. Matsuuchi & R.B. Kelly. In Vitro Mutagenesis of Trypsinogen: The Role of the N-Terminus in Intracellular Protein Targeting to Secretory Granules. J. Cell Bio. 105, 659-668

Untitled Publication

W.J. Rutter, S.J. Gardell, S. Roczniak, D. Hilvert, S. Sprang, R.J. Fletterick & C.S. Craik. Edited by D. Oxender and C.F. Fox. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc. Redesigning Proteins via Genetic Engineering. In: Protein Modification and Design, pp. 257-267

Untitled Publication

S. Gardell, C.S. Craik, D. Hilvert, M. Urdea & W. Rutter. Edited by I. Bertini, C. Luchinat, W. Maret, and M. Zeppezauer. Boston, Massachusetts: Birkhäuser. Probing the Role of Tyrosine 248 in Carboxypeptidase A with Site-Directed Mutagenesis. In: Comparative Analysis of Catalytic Mechanisms of Zinc Enzymes.

Biotechniques

Use of Oligonucleotides for Site-Specific Mutagenesis

C.S. Craik

Untitled Publication

C.S. Craik & S. Beychok. Edited by C. Ho. In: Interaction Between Iron Proteins in Oxygen and Electron Transport, Elsevier North Holland Biomedical Press

Refolding defects in hemoglobin Rothschild.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Craik CS, Vallette I, Beychok S, Waks M