David Agard, PhD

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics
+1 415 476-2521

Discovering the Structural Basis for Biological Function at the Molecular and Cellular Levels

Our research is focused on elucidating the mechanism of Hsp90 chaperone function and its role in human disease, microtubule nucleation and centrosome structure, and the structure and cell biology of phage-encoded tubulins.

In efforts to understand the spatial and temporal regulation of tubulin polymerization into microtubules (MTs), we seek to understand, in atomic detail, the molecular mechanisms underlying dynamic MT behavior and MT nucleation.

Accompanying this is an effort to develop new technologies for high-resolution cryoEM and fluorescence light microscopy.


Amino and PEG-Amino Graphene Oxide Grids Enrich and Protect Samples for High-resolution Single Particle Cryo-electron Microscopy.

Journal of structural biology

Wang F, Yu Z, Betegon M, Campbell MG, Aksel T, Zhao J, Li S, Douglas SM, Cheng Y, Agard DA

A bacteriophage nucleus-like compartment shields DNA from CRISPR nucleases.


Mendoza SD, Nieweglowska ES, Govindarajan S, Leon LM, Berry JD, Tiwari A, Chaikeeratisak V, Pogliano J, Agard DA, Bondy-Denomy J

Novel Small Molecules Targeting the Intrinsically Disordered Structural Ensemble of a-Synuclein Protect Against Diverse a-Synuclein Mediated Dysfunctions.

Scientific reports

Tóth G, Neumann T, Berthet A, Masliah E, Spencer B, Tao J, Jobling MF, Gardai SJ, Bertoncini CW, Cremades N, Bova M, Ballaron S, Chen XH, Mao W, Nguyen P, Tabios MC, Tambe MA, Rochet JC, Junker HD, Schwizer D, Sekul R, Ott I, Anderson JP, Szoke B, Hoffman W, Christodoulou J, Yednock T, Agard DA, Schenk D, McConlogue L

Mind the gap: micro-expansion joints drastically decrease the bending of FIB-milled cryo-lamellae.

Journal of structural biology

Wolff G, Limpens RWAL, Zheng S, Snijder EJ, Agard DA, Koster AJ, Bárcena M

Viral Capsid Trafficking along Treadmilling Tubulin Filaments in Bacteria.


Chaikeeratisak V, Khanna K, Nguyen KT, Sugie J, Egan ME, Erb ML, Vavilina A, Nonejuie P, Nieweglowska E, Pogliano K, Agard DA, Villa E, Pogliano J

Competing protein-protein interactions regulate binding of Hsp27 to its client protein tau.

Nature communications

Freilich R, Betegon M, Tse E, Mok SA, Julien O, Agard DA, Southworth DR, Takeuchi K, Gestwicki JE

The Psychiatric Cell Map Initiative: A Convergent Systems Biological Approach to Illuminating Key Molecular Pathways in Neuropsychiatric Disorders.


Willsey AJ, Morris MT, Wang S, Willsey HR, Sun N, Teerikorpi N, Baum TB, Cagney G, Bender KJ, Desai TA, Srivastava D, Davis GW, Doudna J, Chang E, Sohal V, Lowenstein DH, Li H, Agard D, Keiser MJ, Shoichet B, von Zastrow M, Mucke L, Finkbeiner S, Gan L, Sestan N, Ward ME, Huttenhain R, Nowakowski TJ, Bellen HJ, Frank LM, Khokha MK, Lifton RP, Kampmann M, Ideker T, State MW, Krogan NJ

A simple and robust procedure for preparing graphene-oxide cryo-EM grids.

Journal of structural biology

Palovcak E, Wang F, Zheng SQ, Yu Z, Li S, Betegon M, Bulkley D, Agard DA, Cheng Y

Structural basis of mitochondrial receptor binding and constriction by DRP1.


Kalia R, Wang RY, Yusuf A, Thomas PV, Agard DA, Shaw JM, Frost A

Cryo-tomography tilt-series alignment with consideration of the beam-induced sample motion.

Journal of structural biology

Fernandez JJ, Li S, Bharat TAM, Agard DA

The Structural Asymmetry of Mitochondrial Hsp90 (Trap1) Determines Fine Tuning of Functional Dynamics.

Journal of chemical theory and computation

Moroni E, Agard DA, Colombo G

The centrosomin CM2 domain is a multi-functional binding domain with distinct cell cycle roles.

PloS one

Citron YR, Fagerstrom CJ, Keszthelyi B, Huang B, Rusan NM, Kelly MJS, Agard DA

How Hsp90 and Cdc37 Lubricate Kinase Molecular Switches.

Trends in biochemical sciences

Verba KA, Agard DA

Symmetry broken and rebroken during the ATP hydrolysis cycle of the mitochondrial Hsp90 TRAP1.


Elnatan D, Betegon M, Liu Y, Ramelot T, Kennedy MA, Agard DA

NMR characterization of HtpG, the E. coli Hsp90, using sparse labeling with 13C-methyl alanine.

Journal of biomolecular NMR

Pederson K, Chalmers GR, Gao Q, Elnatan D, Ramelot TA, Ma LC, Montelione GT, Kennedy MA, Agard DA, Prestegard JH

Liquid droplet formation by HP1a suggests a role for phase separation in heterochromatin.


Larson AG, Elnatan D, Keenen MM, Trnka MJ, Johnston JB, Burlingame AL, Agard DA, Redding S, Narlikar GJ

Design of Allosteric Stimulators of the Hsp90 ATPase as New Anticancer Leads.

Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)

D'Annessa I, Sattin S, Tao J, Pennati M, Sànchez-Martìn C, Moroni E, Rasola A, Zaffaroni N, Agard DA, Bernardi A, Colombo G

MotionCor2: anisotropic correction of beam-induced motion for improved cryo-electron microscopy.

Nature methods

Zheng SQ, Palovcak E, Armache JP, Verba KA, Cheng Y, Agard DA

Assembly of a nucleus-like structure during viral replication in bacteria.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Chaikeeratisak V, Nguyen K, Khanna K, Brilot AF, Erb ML, Coker JK, Vavilina A, Newton GL, Buschauer R, Pogliano K, Villa E, Agard DA, Pogliano J

Internal Structure and Preferential Protein Binding of Colloidal Aggregates.

ACS chemical biology

Duan D, Torosyan H, Elnatan D, McLaughlin CK, Logie J, Shoichet MS, Agard DA, Shoichet BK

Atomic structure of Hsp90-Cdc37-Cdk4 reveals that Hsp90 traps and stabilizes an unfolded kinase.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Verba KA, Wang RY, Arakawa A, Liu Y, Shirouzu M, Yokoyama S, Agard DA

Higher-order oligomerization of Spc110p drives ?-tubulin ring complex assembly.

Molecular biology of the cell

Lyon AS, Morin G, Moritz M, Yabut KC, Vojnar T, Zelter A, Muller E, Davis TN, Agard DA

A Fortunate Story of an Unusual AK-47 Bullet Trajectory: Always Keep a Smartphone in Your Pocket.

Prehospital and disaster medicine

Thabouillot O, Perrier P, Roche NC, Agard D, Barbier O, Martin G, Viant E, Leclere JB

Molecular Dynamics Simulations Reveal the Mechanisms of Allosteric Activation of Hsp90 by Designed Ligands.

Scientific reports

Vettoretti G, Moroni E, Sattin S, Tao J, Agard DA, Bernardi A, Colombo G

Structure of ?-tubulin small complex based on a cryo-EM map, chemical cross-links, and a remotely related structure.

Journal of structural biology

Greenberg CH, Kollman J, Zelter A, Johnson R, MacCoss MJ, Davis TN, Agard DA, Sali A

Clinical validation of Anyplex™ II HPV HR Detection according to the guidelines for HPV test requirements for cervical cancer screening.

Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology

Hesselink AT, Sahli R, Berkhof J, Snijders PJ, van der Salm ML, Agard D, Bleeker MC, Heideman DA

Activity-Independent Discovery of Secondary Metabolites Using Chemical Elicitation and Cheminformatic Inference.

ACS chemical biology

Pimentel-Elardo SM, Sørensen D, Ho L, Ziko M, Bueler SA, Lu S, Tao J, Moser A, Lee R, Agard D, Fairn G, Rubinstein JL, Shoichet BK, Nodwell JR

Evaluation of super-resolution performance of the K2 electron-counting camera using 2D crystals of aquaporin-0.

Journal of structural biology

Chiu PL, Li X, Li Z, Beckett B, Brilot AF, Grigorieff N, Agard DA, Cheng Y, Walz T

Activation of Hsp90 Enzymatic Activity and Conformational Dynamics through Rationally Designed Allosteric Ligands.

Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)

Sattin S, Tao J, Vettoretti G, Moroni E, Pennati M, Lopergolo A, Morelli L, Bugatti A, Zuehlke A, Moses M, Prince T, Kijima T, Beebe K, Rusnati M, Neckers L, Zaffaroni N, Agard DA, Bernardi A, Colombo G

The cancer cell map initiative: defining the hallmark networks of cancer.

Molecular cell

Krogan NJ, Lippman S, Agard DA, Ashworth A, Ideker T

Interaction of CK1d with ?TuSC ensures proper microtubule assembly and spindle positioning.

Molecular biology of the cell

Peng Y, Moritz M, Han X, Giddings TH, Lyon A, Kollman J, Winey M, Yates J, Agard DA, Drubin DG, Barnes G

Hsp70 forms antiparallel dimers stabilized by post-translational modifications to position clients for transfer to Hsp90.

Cell reports

Morgner N, Schmidt C, Beilsten-Edmands V, Ebong IO, Patel NA, Clerico EM, Kirschke E, Daturpalli S, Jackson SE, Agard D, Robinson CV

MRC2014: Extensions to the MRC format header for electron cryo-microscopy and tomography.

Journal of structural biology

Cheng A, Henderson R, Mastronarde D, Ludtke SJ, Schoenmakers RH, Short J, Marabini R, Dallakyan S, Agard D, Winn M

Ring closure activates yeast ?TuRC for species-specific microtubule nucleation.

Nature structural & molecular biology

Kollman JM, Greenberg CH, Li S, Moritz M, Zelter A, Fong KK, Fernandez JJ, Sali A, Kilmartin J, Davis TN, Agard DA

A novel N-terminal extension in mitochondrial TRAP1 serves as a thermal regulator of chaperone activity.


Partridge JR, Lavery LA, Elnatan D, Naber N, Cooke R, Agard DA

A bacteriophage tubulin harnesses dynamic instability to center DNA in infected cells.


Erb ML, Kraemer JA, Coker JK, Chaikeeratisak V, Nonejuie P, Agard DA, Pogliano J

Elucidating the mechanism of substrate recognition by the bacterial Hsp90 molecular chaperone.

Journal of molecular biology

Street TO, Zeng X, Pellarin R, Bonomi M, Sali A, Kelly MJ, Chu F, Agard DA

Sparse labeling of proteins: structural characterization from long range constraints.

Journal of magnetic resonance (San Diego, Calif. : 1997)

Prestegard JH, Agard DA, Moremen KW, Lavery LA, Morris LC, Pederson K

Microarray-based screening of heat shock protein inhibitors.

Journal of biotechnology

Schax E, Walter JG, Märzhäuser H, Stahl F, Scheper T, Agard DA, Eichner S, Kirschning A, Zeilinger C

The structure and assembly mechanism of a novel three-stranded tubulin filament that centers phage DNA.

Structure (London, England : 1993)

Zehr EA, Kraemer JA, Erb ML, Coker JK, Montabana EA, Pogliano J, Agard DA

Bacterial tubulin TubZ-Bt transitions between a two-stranded intermediate and a four-stranded filament upon GTP hydrolysis.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Montabana EA, Agard DA

Structural asymmetry in the closed state of mitochondrial Hsp90 (TRAP1) supports a two-step ATP hydrolysis mechanism.

Molecular cell

Lavery LA, Partridge JR, Ramelot TA, Elnatan D, Kennedy MA, Agard DA

Amorphous no more: subdiffraction view of the pericentriolar material architecture.

Trends in cell biology

Mennella V, Agard DA, Huang B, Pelletier L

A new approach for the laboratory culture of the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas.

Environmental toxicology and chemistry

Gordon DA, Smith ME, Wratschko M, Agard D, Holden L, Wilcox S, Lazorchak JM

Cell-cycle regulation of formin-mediated actin cable assembly.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Miao Y, Wong CC, Mennella V, Michelot A, Agard DA, Holt LJ, Yates JR, Drubin DG

High-resolution restoration of 3D structures from widefield images with extreme low signal-to-noise-ratio.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Arigovindan M, Fung JC, Elnatan D, Mennella V, Chan YH, Pollard M, Branlund E, Sedat JW, Agard DA

The Aptima HPV assay fulfills the cross-sectional clinical and reproducibility criteria of international guidelines for human papillomavirus test requirements for cervical screening.

Journal of clinical microbiology

Heideman DA, Hesselink AT, van Kemenade FJ, Iftner T, Berkhof J, Topal F, Agard D, Meijer CJ, Snijders PJ

Influence of electron dose rate on electron counting images recorded with the K2 camera.

Journal of structural biology

Li X, Zheng SQ, Egami K, Agard DA, Cheng Y

Electron counting and beam-induced motion correction enable near-atomic-resolution single-particle cryo-EM.

Nature methods

Li X, Mooney P, Zheng S, Booth CR, Braunfeld MB, Gubbens S, Agard DA, Cheng Y

Uncovering a region of heat shock protein 90 important for client binding in E. coli and chaperone function in yeast.

Molecular cell

Genest O, Reidy M, Street TO, Hoskins JR, Camberg JL, Agard DA, Masison DC, Wickner S

Fast multicolor 3D imaging using aberration-corrected multifocus microscopy.

Nature methods

Abrahamsson S, Chen J, Hajj B, Stallinga S, Katsov AY, Wisniewski J, Mizuguchi G, Soule P, Mueller F, Dugast Darzacq C, Darzacq X, Wu C, Bargmann CI, Agard DA, Dahan M, Gustafsson MG

The bacterial actin MamK: in vitro assembly behavior and filament architecture.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Ozyamak E, Kollman J, Agard DA, Komeili A

A method for integrative structure determination of protein-protein complexes.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England)

Schneidman-Duhovny D, Rossi A, Avila-Sakar A, Kim SJ, Velázquez-Muriel J, Strop P, Liang H, Krukenberg KA, Liao M, Kim HM, Sobhanifar S, Dötsch V, Rajpal A, Pons J, Agard DA, Cheng Y, Sali A

Subdiffraction-resolution fluorescence microscopy reveals a domain of the centrosome critical for pericentriolar material organization.

Nature cell biology

Mennella V, Keszthelyi B, McDonald KL, Chhun B, Kan F, Rogers GC, Huang B, Agard DA

The conserved arginine 380 of Hsp90 is not a catalytic residue, but stabilizes the closed conformation required for ATP hydrolysis.

Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society

Cunningham CN, Southworth DR, Krukenberg KA, Agard DA

A phage tubulin assembles dynamic filaments by an atypical mechanism to center viral DNA within the host cell.


Kraemer JA, Erb ML, Waddling CA, Montabana EA, Zehr EA, Wang H, Nguyen K, Pham DS, Agard DA, Pogliano J

Functional modulation of a protein folding landscape via side-chain distortion.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Kelch BA, Salimi NL, Agard DA

Three-dimensional structure of basal body triplet revealed by electron cryo-tomography.

The EMBO journal

Li S, Fernandez JJ, Marshall WF, Agard DA

Cross-monomer substrate contacts reposition the Hsp90 N-terminal domain and prime the chaperone activity.

Journal of molecular biology

Street TO, Lavery LA, Verba KA, Lee CT, Mayer MP, Agard DA

Microtubule nucleation by ?-tubulin complexes.

Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology

Kollman JM, Merdes A, Mourey L, Agard DA

A small molecule that preferentially binds the closed conformation of Hsp90.

Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters

Alexander LD, Partridge JR, Agard DA, McAlpine SR

Crystal structure of ?-tubulin complex protein GCP4 provides insight into microtubule nucleation.

Nature structural & molecular biology

Guillet V, Knibiehler M, Gregory-Pauron L, Remy MH, Chemin C, Raynaud-Messina B, Bon C, Kollman JM, Agard DA, Merdes A, Mourey L

Sas-4 provides a scaffold for cytoplasmic complexes and tethers them in a centrosome.

Nature communications

Gopalakrishnan J, Mennella V, Blachon S, Zhai B, Smith AH, Megraw TL, Nicastro D, Gygi SP, Agard DA, Avidor-Reiss T

A distributed multi-GPU system for high speed electron microscopic tomographic reconstruction.


Zheng SQ, Branlund E, Kesthelyi B, Braunfeld MB, Cheng Y, Sedat JW, Agard DA

Conformational dynamics of the molecular chaperone Hsp90.

Quarterly reviews of biophysics

Krukenberg KA, Street TO, Lavery LA, Agard DA

Architecture and assembly of a divergent member of the ParM family of bacterial actin-like proteins.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Rivera CR, Kollman JM, Polka JK, Agard DA, Mullins RD

Condensed mitotic chromosome structure at nanometer resolution using PALM and EGFP- histones.

PloS one

Matsuda A, Shao L, Boulanger J, Kervrann C, Carlton PM, Kner P, Agard D, Sedat JW

Fast live simultaneous multiwavelength four-dimensional optical microscopy.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Carlton PM, Boulanger J, Kervrann C, Sibarita JB, Salamero J, Gordon-Messer S, Bressan D, Haber JE, Haase S, Shao L, Winoto L, Matsuda A, Kner P, Uzawa S, Gustafsson M, Kam Z, Agard DA, Sedat JW

High-performance iterative electron tomography reconstruction with long-object compensation using graphics processing units (GPUs).

Journal of structural biology

Xu W, Xu F, Jones M, Keszthelyi B, Sedat J, Agard D, Mueller K

Closed loop adaptive optics for microscopy without a wavefront sensor.

Proceedings of SPIE--the International Society for Optical Engineering

Kner P, Winoto L, Agard DA, Sedat JW

Self-assembling SAS-6 multimer is a core centriole building block.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Gopalakrishnan J, Guichard P, Smith AH, Schwarz H, Agard DA, Marco S, Avidor-Reiss T

Automated data collection for electron microscopic tomography.

Methods in enzymology

Zheng SQ, Sedat JW, Agard DA

Mechanistic studies of Sansalvamide A-amide: an allosteric modulator of Hsp90.

ACS medicinal chemistry letters

Vasko RC, Rodriguez RA, Cunningham CN, Ardi VC, Agard DA, McAlpine SR

Osmolyte-induced conformational changes in the Hsp90 molecular chaperone.

Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society

Street TO, Krukenberg KA, Rosgen J, Bolen DW, Agard DA

On the efficiency of iterative ordered subset reconstruction algorithms for acceleration on GPUs.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine

Xu F, Xu W, Jones M, Keszthelyi B, Sedat J, Agard D, Mueller K

Grp94, the endoplasmic reticulum Hsp90, has a similar solution conformation to cytosolic Hsp90 in the absence of nucleotide.

Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society

Krukenberg KA, Böttcher UM, Southworth DR, Agard DA

The structure and assembly dynamics of plasmid actin AlfA imply a novel mechanism of DNA segregation.

Journal of bacteriology

Polka JK, Kollman JM, Agard DA, Mullins RD

Dual-axis target mapping and automated sequential acquisition of dual-axis EM tomographic data.

Journal of structural biology

Zheng SQ, Matsuda A, Braunfeld MB, Sedat JW, Agard DA

Fully automated, sequential tilt-series acquisition with Leginon.

Journal of structural biology

Suloway C, Shi J, Cheng A, Pulokas J, Carragher B, Potter CS, Zheng SQ, Agard DA, Jensen GJ

Integration of small-angle X-ray scattering data into structural modeling of proteins and their assemblies.

Journal of molecular biology

Förster F, Webb B, Krukenberg KA, Tsuruta H, Agard DA, Sali A

Subdiffraction multicolor imaging of the nuclear periphery with 3D structured illumination microscopy.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Schermelleh L, Carlton PM, Haase S, Shao L, Winoto L, Kner P, Burke B, Cardoso MC, Agard DA, Gustafsson MG, Leonhardt H, Sedat JW

Intra- and intermonomer interactions are required to synergistically facilitate ATP hydrolysis in Hsp90.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Cunningham CN, Krukenberg KA, Agard DA

Multiple conformations of E. coli Hsp90 in solution: insights into the conformational dynamics of Hsp90.

Structure (London, England : 1993)

Krukenberg KA, Förster F, Rice LM, Sali A, Agard DA

Mob4 plays a role in spindle focusing in Drosophila S2 cells.

Journal of cell science

Trammell MA, Mahoney NM, Agard DA, Vale RD

The lattice as allosteric effector: structural studies of alphabeta- and gamma-tubulin clarify the role of GTP in microtubule assembly.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Rice LM, Montabana EA, Agard DA

I5S: wide-field light microscopy with 100-nm-scale resolution in three dimensions.

Biophysical journal

Shao L, Isaac B, Uzawa S, Agard DA, Sedat JW, Gustafsson MG

Three-dimensional resolution doubling in wide-field fluorescence microscopy by structured illumination.

Biophysical journal

Gustafsson MG, Shao L, Carlton PM, Wang CJ, Golubovskaya IN, Cande WZ, Agard DA, Sedat JW

The structure of the gamma-tubulin small complex: implications of its architecture and flexibility for microtubule nucleation.

Molecular biology of the cell

Kollman JM, Zelter A, Muller EG, Fox B, Rice LM, Davis TN, Agard DA

AIDA: an adaptive image deconvolution algorithm with application to multi-frame and three-dimensional data.

Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, image science, and vision

Hom EF, Marchis F, Lee TK, Haase S, Agard DA, Sedat JW

Modelling the application of adaptive optics to wide-field microscope live imaging.

Journal of microscopy

Kam Z, Kner P, Agard D, Sedat JW

Structural and mechanistic exploration of acid resistance: kinetic stability facilitates evolution of extremophilic behavior.

Journal of molecular biology

Kelch BA, Eagen KP, Erciyas FP, Humphris EL, Thomason AR, Mitsuiki S, Agard DA

Automated acquisition of electron microscopic random conical tilt sets.

Journal of structural biology

Zheng SQ, Kollman JM, Braunfeld MB, Sedat JW, Agard DA

Tunable instability mechanisms of polymer thin films by molecular self-assembly.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids

Wei B, Lam PG, Braunfeld MB, Agard DA, Genzer J, Spontak RJ

Electron energy filtering significantly improves amplitude contrast of frozen-hydrated protein at 300kV.

Journal of structural biology

Yonekura K, Braunfeld MB, Maki-Yonekura S, Agard DA

UCSF tomography: an integrated software suite for real-time electron microscopic tomographic data collection, alignment, and reconstruction.

Journal of structural biology

Zheng SQ, Keszthelyi B, Branlund E, Lyle JM, Braunfeld MB, Sedat JW, Agard DA

A novel 3D wavelet-based filter for visualizing features in noisy biological data.

Journal of microscopy

Moss WC, Haase S, Lyle JM, Agard DA, Sedat JW

Suite of three protein crystallography beamlines with single superconducting bend magnet as the source.

Journal of synchrotron radiation

MacDowell AA, Celestre RS, Howells M, McKinney W, Krupnick J, Cambie D, Domning EE, Duarte RM, Kelez N, Plate DW, Cork CW, Earnest TN, Dickert J, Meigs G, Ralston C, Holton JM, Alber T, Berger JM, Agard DA, Padmore HA

Phase-retrieved pupil functions in wide-field fluorescence microscopy.

Journal of microscopy

Hanser BM, Gustafsson MG, Agard DA, Sedat JW

An improved strategy for automated electron microscopic tomography.

Journal of structural biology

Zheng QS, Braunfeld MB, Sedat JW, Agard DA

Disabling the folding catalyst is the last critical step in alpha-lytic protease folding.

Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society

Cunningham EL, Agard DA

Phase retrieval for high-numerical-aperture optical systems.

Optics letters

Hanser BM, Gustafsson MG, Agard DA, Sedat JW

Assessment of the role of computations in structural biology.

Advances in protein chemistry

Kuntz ID, Agard DA

Clathrin light and heavy chain interface: alpha-helix binding superhelix loops via critical tryptophans.

The EMBO journal

Chen CY, Reese ML, Hwang PK, Ota N, Agard D, Brodsky FM

Centriole duplication: centrin in on answers?

Current biology : CB

Rice LM, Agard DA

Structural characterization of a subtype-selective ligand reveals a novel mode of estrogen receptor antagonism.

Nature structural biology

Shiau AK, Barstad D, Radek JT, Meyers MJ, Nettles KW, Katzenellenbogen BS, Katzenellenbogen JA, Agard DA, Greene GL

Structural studies of the scrapie prion protein by electron crystallography.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Wille H, Michelitsch MD, Guenebaut V, Supattapone S, Serban A, Cohen FE, Agard DA, Prusiner SB

GCP5 and GCP6: two new members of the human gamma-tubulin complex.

Molecular biology of the cell

Murphy SM, Preble AM, Patel UK, O'Connell KL, Dias DP, Moritz M, Agard D, Stults JT, Stearns T

Gamma-tubulin complexes and microtubule nucleation.

Current opinion in structural biology

Moritz M, Agard DA

Computational adaptive optics for live three-dimensional biological imaging.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Kam Z, Hanser B, Gustafsson MG, Agard DA, Sedat JW

Reconstitution of centrosome microtubule nucleation in Drosophila.

Methods in cell biology

Moritz M, Braunfeld MB, Alberts BM, Agard DA

Estrogen receptor pathways to AP-1.

The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology

Kushner PJ, Agard DA, Greene GL, Scanlan TS, Shiau AK, Uht RM, Webb P

Structure of the gamma-tubulin ring complex: a template for microtubule nucleation.

Nature cell biology

Moritz M, Braunfeld MB, Guénebaut V, Heuser J, Agard DA

Evidence for the coincident initiation of homolog pairing and synapsis during the telomere-clustering (bouquet) stage of meiotic prophase.

Journal of cell science

Bass HW, Riera-Lizarazu O, Ananiev EV, Bordoli SJ, Rines HW, Phillips RL, Sedat JW, Agard DA, Cande WZ

Direct measurement of interfacial curvature distributions in a bicontinuous block copolymer morphology.

Physical review letters

Jinnai H, Nishikawa Y, Spontak RJ, Smith SD, Agard DA, Hashimoto T

Oestrogen receptor function at classical and alternative response elements.

Novartis Foundation symposium

Kushner PJ, Agard D, Feng WJ, Lopez G, Schiau A, Uht R, Webb P, Greene G

Kinetic stability as a mechanism for protease longevity.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Cunningham EL, Jaswal SS, Sohl JL, Agard DA

I5M: 3D widefield light microscopy with better than 100 nm axial resolution.

Journal of microscopy

Gustafsson MG, Agard DA, Sedat JW

Structure of alpha-lytic protease complexed with its pro region.

Nature structural biology

Sauter NK, Mau T, Rader SD, Agard DA

Pro region C-terminus:protease active site interactions are critical in catalyzing the folding of alpha-lytic protease.


Peters RJ, Shiau AK, Sohl JL, Anderson DE, Tang G, Silen JL, Agard DA

Homologous chromosome pairing in Drosophila melanogaster proceeds through multiple independent initiations.

The Journal of cell biology

Fung JC, Marshall WF, Dernburg A, Agard DA, Sedat JW

Activation of a retroviral membrane fusion protein: soluble receptor-induced liposome binding of the ALSV envelope glycoprotein.

The Journal of cell biology

Hernandez LD, Peters RJ, Delos SE, Young JA, Agard DA, White JM

Interphase chromosomes undergo constrained diffusional motion in living cells.

Current biology : CB

Marshall WF, Straight A, Marko JF, Swedlow J, Dernburg A, Belmont A, Murray AW, Agard DA, Sedat JW

Conformational substates in enzyme mechanism: the 120 K structure of alpha-lytic protease at 1.5 A resolution.

Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society

Rader SD, Agard DA

Perturbation of nuclear architecture by long-distance chromosome interactions.


Dernburg AF, Broman KW, Fung JC, Marshall WF, Philips J, Agard DA, Sedat JW

Dispersion, aberration and deconvolution in multi-wavelength fluorescence images.

Journal of microscopy

Scalettar BA, Swedlow JR, Sedat JW, Agard DA

IVE (Image Visualization Environment): a software platform for all three-dimensional microscopy applications.

Journal of structural biology

Chen H, Hughes DD, Chan TA, Sedat JW, Agard DA

Toward fully automated high-resolution electron tomography.

Journal of structural biology

Fung JC, Liu W, de Ruijter WJ, Chen H, Abbey CK, Sedat JW, Agard DA

Microtubule nucleation by gamma-tubulin-containing rings in the centrosome.


Moritz M, Braunfeld MB, Sedat JW, Alberts B, Agard DA

A three-dimensional structural dissection of Drosophila polytene chromosomes.

The Journal of cell biology

Urata Y, Parmelee SJ, Agard DA, Sedat JW

Three-dimensional structural characterization of centrosomes from early Drosophila embryos.

The Journal of cell biology

Moritz M, Braunfeld MB, Fung JC, Sedat JW, Alberts BM, Agard DA

Influenza hemagglutinin: kinetic control of protein function.

Structure (London, England : 1993)

Baker D, Agard DA

Human apolipoprotein E. Role of arginine 61 in mediating the lipoprotein preferences of the E3 and E4 isoforms.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Dong LM, Wilson C, Wardell MR, Simmons T, Mahley RW, Weisgraber KH, Agard DA

Salt bridge relay triggers defective LDL receptor binding by a mutant apolipoprotein.

Structure (London, England : 1993)

Wilson C, Mau T, Weisgraber KH, Wardell MR, Mahley RW, Agard DA

The role of pro regions in protein folding.

Current opinion in cell biology

Baker D, Shiau AK, Agard DA

PRISM: application to the solution of two protein structures.

Acta crystallographica. Section D, Biological crystallography

Bystroff C, Baker D, Fletterick RJ, Agard DA

PRISM: topologically constrained phased refinement for macromolecular crystallography.

Acta crystallographica. Section D, Biological crystallography

Baker D, Bystroff C, Fletterick RJ, Agard DA

To fold or not to fold....

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Agard DA

Chromosome structure inside the nucleus.

Current opinion in cell biology

Swedlow JR, Agard DA, Sedat JW

The onset of homologous chromosome pairing during Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis.

The Journal of cell biology

Hiraoka Y, Dernburg AF, Parmelee SJ, Rykowski MC, Agard DA, Sedat JW

Uniqueness and the ab initio phase problem in macromolecular crystallography.

Acta crystallographica. Section D, Biological crystallography

Baker D, Krukowski AE, Agard DA

Automated microscopy for electron tomography.


Koster AJ, Chen H, Sedat JW, Agard DA

An extended view of nuclear lamin structure, function, and dynamics.

Seminars in cell biology

Paddy MR, Agard DA, Sedat JW

Correct folding of alpha-lytic protease is required for its extracellular secretion from Escherichia coli.

The Journal of cell biology

Fujishige A, Smith KR, Silen JL, Agard DA

A protein-folding reaction under kinetic control.


Baker D, Sohl JL, Agard DA

Structural basis for broad specificity in alpha-lytic protease mutants.


Bone R, Fujishige A, Kettner CA, Agard DA

Computational method for the design of enzymes with altered substrate specificity.

Journal of molecular biology

Wilson C, Mace JE, Agard DA

Three-dimensional structure of the LDL receptor-binding domain of human apolipoprotein E.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Wilson C, Wardell MR, Weisgraber KH, Mahley RW, Agard DA

Drosophila gastrulation: analysis of cell shape changes in living embryos by three-dimensional fluorescence microscopy.

Development (Cambridge, England)

Kam Z, Minden JS, Agard DA, Sedat JW, Leptin M

Three-dimensional multiple-wavelength fluorescence microscopy for the structural analysis of biological phenomena.

Seminars in cell biology

Hiraoka Y, Swedlow JR, Paddy MR, Agard DA, Sedat JW

Mutational remodeling of enzyme specificity.

Methods in enzymology

Bone R, Agard DA

Fluorescence microscopy in three dimensions.

Methods in cell biology

Agard DA, Hiraoka Y, Shaw P, Sedat JW

Solid-state imagers for microscopy.

Methods in cell biology

Aikens RS, Agard DA, Sedat JW

Kinetic properties of the binding of alpha-lytic protease to peptide boronic acids.


Kettner CA, Bone R, Agard DA, Bachovchin WW

Three-dimensional light microscopy of diploid Drosophila chromosomes.

Cell motility and the cytoskeleton

Agard DA, Hiraoka Y, Sedat JW

[Hepatonephritis caused by piroxicam].

Gastroenterologie clinique et biologique

Marsepoil T, Levesque P, Agard D, Dubeaux P, Blin F

[Anorectal manifestations of sexually transmissible diseases. Kaposi's sarcoma].

Annales de gastroenterologie et d'hepatologie

Libeskind M, Malbran J, Agard D, Pannetier C, Lecouillard C, Ivanovic A

Optical sectioning microscopy: cellular architecture in three dimensions.

Annual review of biophysics and bioengineering

Agard DA

Spatial organization of the Drosophila nucleus: a three-dimensional cytogenetic study.

Journal of cell science. Supplement

Gruenbaum Y, Hochstrasser M, Mathog D, Saumweber H, Agard DA, Sedat JW

[Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. A report of two cases with hyponatremia and hypouricemia].

La semaine des hopitaux : organe fonde par l'Association d'enseignement medical des hopitaux de Paris

Malbran J, Agard D, Libeskind M, Redelsperger PY, Lecouillard C, Pannetier C

[Hemorrhoids. Physiopathogenic concepts and approach to a rational treatment].

Gastroenterologie clinique et biologique

Libeskind M, Lugagne F, Malbran J, Agard D, Redelsperger PY

[Gastrointestinal haemorrhage in the cirrhotic. The value of injectable posterior pituitary extract (author's transl)].

La Nouvelle presse medicale

Libeskind M, Malbran J, Lugagne F, Redelsperger PY, Bourgeois J, Agard D

[The excision of villous tumours of the rectum via a trans-sphincterian anal approach (author's transl)].

La Nouvelle presse medicale

Libeskind M, Lugagne F, Malbran J, Agard D, Redelsperger PY

[Secondary melanomas of the liver. Appropos of 3 cases with hepatic symptomatology].

Medecine & chirurgie digestives

Libeskind M, Redelsperger PY, Lugagne F, Malbran J, Agard D

Structural studies of a membrane-bound acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica.

Journal of molecular biology

Ross MJ, Klymkowsky MW, Agard DA, Stroud RM

[Systemic amyloidosis and multiple myeloma. Report of a case with the association of light chain myeloma and gastric plasmacytosis (author's transl)].

Gastroenterologie clinique et biologique

Libeskind M, Malbran J, Lugagne F, Agard D, Gatineau-Saillant C, Guyet-Rousset P